
Andreas Gunawan,
Bhaskar DasGupta and
Louxin Zhang. A decomposition theorem and two algorithms for reticulationvisible networks. In Information and Computation, Vol. 252:161175, 2017. Keywords: cluster containment, explicit network, from clusters, from network, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reticulationvisible network, tree containment.. Note: https://www.cs.uic.edu/~dasgupta/resume/publ/papers/Infor_Comput_IC4848_final.pdf.



Bingxin Lu,
Louxin Zhang and
Hon Wai Leong. A program to compute the soft RobinsonFoulds distance between phylogenetic networks. In APBC17, Vol. 18(Suppl. 2):111 of BMC Genomics, 2017. Keywords: cluster containment, distance between networks, explicit network, exponential algorithm, from network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program iceluPhyloNetwork. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s1286401735005.



Jesper Jansson,
Ramesh Rajaby and
WingKin Sung. An Efficient Algorithm for the Rooted Triplet Distance Between Galled Trees. In AlCoB17, Vol. 10252:115126 of LNCS, Springer, 2017. Keywords: distance between networks, from network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction, triplet distance. Note: .



Han Lai,
Maureen Stolzer and
Dannie Durand. Fast Heuristics for Resolving Weakly Supported Branches Using Duplication, Transfers, and Losses. In RECOMBCG17, Vol. 10562:298320 of LNCS, Springer, 2017. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Notung, reconstruction.





Andreas Gunawan,
Bhaskar DasGupta and
Louxin Zhang. Locating a Tree in a ReticulationVisible Network in Cubic Time. In RECOMB2016, Vol. 9649:266 of LNBI, Springer, 2016. Keywords: cluster containment, explicit network, from clusters, from network, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reticulationvisible network, tree containment. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.02119.



Philippe Gambette,
Andreas Gunawan,
Anthony Labarre,
Stéphane Vialette and
Louxin Zhang. Solving the Tree Containment Problem for Genetically Stable Networks in Quadratic Time. In IWOCA15, Vol. 9538:197208 of LNCS, springer, 2016. Keywords: explicit network, from network, from rooted trees, genetically stable network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, tree containment. Note: https://halupecupem.archivesouvertes.fr/hal01226035 .











Katharina Huber,
Leo van Iersel,
Vincent Moulton and
Taoyang Wu. How much information is needed to infer reticulate evolutionary histories? In Systematic Biology, Vol. 64(1):102111, 2015. Keywords: explicit network, from network, from rooted trees, from trinets, identifiability, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, uniqueness. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syu076.



Philippe Gambette,
Andreas Gunawan,
Anthony Labarre,
Stéphane Vialette and
Louxin Zhang. Locating a Tree in A Phylogenetic Network in Quadratic Time. In RECOMB15, Vol. 9029:96107 of LNCS, Springer, 2015. Keywords: evaluation, explicit network, from network, from rooted trees, genetically stable network, nearlystable network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, tree containment. Note: https://hal.archivesouvertes.fr/hal01116231/en.









Jittat Fakcharoenphol,
Tanee Kumpijit and
Attakorn Putwattana. A Faster Algorithm for the Tree Containment Problem for Binary Nearly Stable Phylogenetic Networks. In Proceedings of the The 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE'15), Pages 337342, IEEE, 2015. Keywords: dynamic programming, explicit network, from network, from rooted trees, nearlystable network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, tree containment.



Misagh Kordi and
Mukul S. Bansal. On the Complexity of DuplicationTransferLoss Reconciliation with NonBinary Gene Trees. In ISBRA15, Vol. 9096:187198 of LNCS, springer, 2015. Keywords: duplication, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, loss, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://compbio.engr.uconn.edu/papers/Kordi_ISBRA2015.pdf.



Yun Yu and
Luay Nakhleh. A DistanceBased Method for Inferring Phylogenetic Networks in the Presence of Incomplete Lineage Sorting. In ISBRA15, Vol. 9096:378389 of LNCS, springer, 2015. Keywords: bootstrap, explicit network, from distances, heuristic, incomplete lineage sorting, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/sites/bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/files/YuNakhlehISBRA15.pdf.





Yun Yu and
Luay Nakhleh. A maximum pseudolikelihood approach for phylogenetic networks. In RECOMBCG15, Vol. 16(Suppl 10)(S10):110 of BMC Genomics, BioMed Central, 2015. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhyloNet, reconstruction, tripartition distance. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471216416S10S10.





Gabriel Cardona,
Mercè Llabrés,
Francesc Rosselló and
Gabriel Valiente. The comparison of treesibling time consistent phylogenetic networks is graphisomorphism complete. In The Scientific World Journal, Vol. 2014(254279):16, 2014. Keywords: abstract network, distance between networks, from network, isomorphism, phylogenetic network, tree sibling network. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0902.4640.
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"Several polynomial time computable metrics on the class of semibinary treesibling time consistent phylogenetic networks are available in the literature; in particular, the problem of deciding if two networks of this kind are isomorphic is in P. In this paper, we show that if we remove the semibinarity condition, then the problem becomes much harder. More precisely, we prove that the isomorphism problem for generic treesibling time consistent phylogenetic networks is polynomially equivalent to the graph isomorphism problem. Since the latter is believed not to belong to P, the chances are that it is impossible to define a metric on the class of all treesibling time consistent phylogenetic networks that can be computed in polynomial time. © 2014 Gabriel Cardona et al."



Leo van Iersel and
Steven Kelk. Kernelizations for the hybridization number problem on multiple nonbinary trees. In WG14, Vol. 8747:299311 of LNCS, springer, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, kernelization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Treeduce, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1311.4045.



Jialiang Yang,
Stefan Grünewald,
Yifei Xu and
XiuFeng Wan. Quartetbased methods to reconstruct phylogenetic networks. In BMC Systems Biology, Vol. 80(21), 2014. Keywords: abstract network, from quartets, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program QuartetMethods, Program QuartetNet, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/17520509821
.
Toggle abstract
"Background: Phylogenetic networks are employed to visualize evolutionary relationships among a group of nucleotide sequences, genes or species when reticulate events like hybridization, recombination, reassortant and horizontal gene transfer are believed to be involved. In comparison to traditional distancebased methods, quartetbased methods consider more information in the reconstruction process and thus have the potential to be more accurate.Results: We introduce QuartetSuite, which includes a set of new quartetbased methods, namely QuartetS, QuartetA, and QuartetM, to reconstruct phylogenetic networks from nucleotide sequences. We tested their performances and compared them with other popular methods on two simulated nucleotide sequence data sets: one generated from a tree topology and the other from a complicated evolutionary history containing three reticulate events. We further validated these methods to two real data sets: a bacterial data set consisting of seven concatenated genes of 36 bacterial species and an influenza data set related to recently emerging H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in China.Conclusion: QuartetS, QuartetA, and QuartetM have the potential to accurately reconstruct evolutionary scenarios from simple branching trees to complicated networks containing many reticulate events. These methods could provide insights into the understanding of complicated biological evolutionary processes such as bacterial taxonomy and reassortant of influenza viruses. © 2014 Yang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Ran LibeskindHadas,
YiChieh Wu,
Mukul S. Bansal and
Manolis Kellis. Paretooptimal phylogenetic tree reconciliation. In ISMB14, Vol. 30:i87i95 of BIO, 2014. Keywords: duplication, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Xscape, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btu289.
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"Motivation: Phylogenetic tree reconciliation is a widely used method for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of gene families and species, hosts and parasites and other dependent pairs of entities. Reconciliation is typically performed using maximum parsimony, in which each evolutionary event type is assigned a cost and the objective is to find a reconciliation of minimum total cost. It is generally understood that reconciliations are sensitive to event costs, but little is understood about the relationship between event costs and solutions. Moreover, choosing appropriate event costs is a notoriously difficult problem. Results: We address this problem by giving an efficient algorithm for computing Paretooptimal sets of reconciliations, thus providing the first systematic method for understanding the relationship between event costs and reconciliations. This, in turn, results in new techniques for computing event support values and, for cophylogenetic analyses, performing robust statistical tests. We provide new software tools and demonstrate their use on a number of datasets from evolutionary genomic and cophylogenetic studies. © 2014 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved."



Adrià Alcalà Mena,
Mercè Llabrés,
Francesc Rosselló and
Pau Rullan. TreeChild Cluster Networks. In Fundamenta Informaticae, Vol. 134(12):115, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from clusters, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhyloNetwork, reconstruction, tree child network.



Yufeng Wu. An Algorithm for Constructing Parsimonious Hybridization Networks with Multiple Phylogenetic Trees. In RECOMB13, Vol. 7821:291303 of LNCS, springer, 2013. Keywords: explicit network, exponential algorithm, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PIRN, reconstruction. Note: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~ywu/Papers/ExactNetRecomb2013.pdf.
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"Phylogenetic network is a model for reticulate evolution. Hybridization network is one type of phylogenetic network for a set of discordant gene trees, and "displays" each gene tree. A central computational problem on hybridization networks is: given a set of gene trees, reconstruct the minimum (i.e. most parsimonious) hybridization network that displays each given gene tree. This problem is known to be NPhard, and existing approaches for this problem are either heuristics or make simplifying assumptions (e.g. work with only two input trees or assume some topological properties). In this paper, we develop an exact algorithm (called PIRNC ) for inferring the minimum hybridization networks from multiple gene trees. The PIRNC algorithm does not rely on structural assumptions. To the best of our knowledge, PIRN C is the first exact algorithm for this formulation. When the number of reticulation events is relatively small (say four or fewer), PIRNC runs reasonably efficient even for moderately large datasets. For building more complex networks, we also develop a heuristic version of PIRNC called PIRNCH. Simulation shows that PIRNCH usually produces networks with fewer reticulation events than those by an existing method. © 2013 SpringerVerlag."



Mukul S. Bansal,
Eric J. Alm and
Manolis Kellis. Reconciliation Revisited: Handling Multiple Optima when Reconciling with Duplication, Transfer, and Loss. In RECOMB13, Vol. 7821:113 of LNCS, springer, 2013. Keywords: duplication, from rooted trees, from species tree, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program RANGERDTL, reconstruction. Note: http://people.csail.mit.edu/mukul/Bansal_RECOMB2013.pdf.
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"Phylogenetic tree reconciliation is a powerful approach for inferring evolutionary events like gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, and gene loss, which are fundamental to our understanding of molecular evolution. While DuplicationLoss (DL) reconciliation leads to a unique maximumparsimony solution, DuplicationTransferLoss (DTL) reconciliation yields a multitude of optimal solutions, making it difficult the infer the true evolutionary history of the gene family. Here, we present an effective, efficient, and scalable method for dealing with this fundamental problem in DTL reconciliation. Our approach works by sampling the space of optimal reconciliations uniformly at random and aggregating the results. We present an algorithm to efficiently sample the space of optimal reconciliations uniformly at random in O(mn 2) time, where m and n denote the number of genes and species, respectively. We use these samples to understand how different optimal reconciliations vary in their node mapping and event assignments, and to investigate the impact of varying event costs. © 2013 SpringerVerlag."



Hoa Vu,
Francis Chin,
WingKai Hon,
Henry Leung,
Kunihiko Sadakane,
WingKin Sung and
SiuMing Yiu. Reconstructing kReticulated Phylogenetic Network from a Set of Gene Trees. In ISBRA13, Vol. 7875:112124 of LNCS, springer, 2013. Keywords: from rooted trees, kreticulated, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program ARTNET, Program CMPT, reconstruction. Note: http://grid.cs.gsu.edu/~xguo9/publications/2013_Cloud%20computing%20for%20de%20novo%20metagenomic%20sequence%20assembly.pdf#page=123.
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"The time complexity of existing algorithms for reconstructing a levelx phylogenetic network increases exponentially in x. In this paper, we propose a new classification of phylogenetic networks called kreticulated network. A kreticulated network can model all levelk networks and some levelx networks with x > k. We design algorithms for reconstructing kreticulated network (k = 1 or 2) with minimum number of hybrid nodes from a set of m binary trees, each with n leaves in O(mn 2) time. The implication is that some levelx networks with x > k can now be reconstructed in a faster way. We implemented our algorithm (ARTNET) and compared it with CMPT. We show that ARTNET outperforms CMPT in terms of running time and accuracy. We also consider the case when there does not exist a 2reticulated network for the input trees. We present an algorithm computing a maximum subset of the species set so that a new set of subtrees can be combined into a 2reticulated network. © 2013 SpringerVerlag."







Paul Phipps and
Sergey Bereg. Optimizing Phylogenetic Networks for Circular Split Systems. In TCBB, Vol. 9(2):535547, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from distances, from splits, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhippsNetwork, reconstruction, software.
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"We address the problem of realizing a given distance matrix by a planar phylogenetic network with a minimum number of faces. With the help of the popular software SplitsTree4, we start by approximating the distance matrix with a distance metric that is a linear combination of circular splits. The main results of this paper are the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a network with a single face. We show how such a network can be constructed, and we present a heuristic for constructing a network with few faces using the first algorithm as the base case. Experimental results on biological data show that this heuristic algorithm can produce phylogenetic networks with far fewer faces than the ones computed by SplitsTree4, without affecting the approximation of the distance matrix. © 2012 IEEE."



Magnus Bordewich and
Charles Semple. Budgeted Nature Reserve Selection with diversity feature loss and arbitrary split systems. In JOMB, Vol. 64(1):6985, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, approximation, diversity, phylogenetic network, polynomial, split network. Note: http://www.math.canterbury.ac.nz/~c.semple/papers/BS11.pdf.
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"Arising in the context of biodiversity conservation, the Budgeted Nature Reserve Selection (BNRS) problem is to select, subject to budgetary constraints, a set of regions to conserve so that the phylogenetic diversity (PD) of the set of species contained within those regions is maximized. Here PD is measured across either a single rooted tree or a single unrooted tree. Nevertheless, in both settings, this problem is NPhard. However, it was recently shown that, for each setting, there is a polynomialtime (11/e)approximation algorithm for it and that this algorithm is tight. In the first part of the paper, we consider two extensions of BNRS. In the rooted setting we additionally allow for the disappearance of features, for varying survival probabilities across species, and for PD to be measured across multiple trees. In the unrooted setting, we extend to arbitrary split systems. We show that, despite these additional allowances, there remains a polynomialtime (11/e)approximation algorithm for each extension. In the second part of the paper, we resolve a complexity problem on computing PD across an arbitrary split system left open by Spillner et al. © 2011 SpringerVerlag."



Yun Yu,
James H. Degnan and
Luay Nakhleh. The probability of a gene tree topology within a phylogenetic network with applications to hybridization detection. In PLoS Genetics, Vol. 8(4):e1002660, 2012. Keywords: AIC, BIC, explicit network, hybridization, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, statistical model. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002660.
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"Gene tree topologies have proven a powerful data source for various tasks, including species tree inference and species delimitation. Consequently, methods for computing probabilities of gene trees within species trees have been developed and widely used in probabilistic inference frameworks. All these methods assume an underlying multispecies coalescent model. However, when reticulate evolutionary events such as hybridization occur, these methods are inadequate, as they do not account for such events. Methods that account for both hybridization and deep coalescence in computing the probability of a gene tree topology currently exist for very limited cases. However, no such methods exist for general cases, owing primarily to the fact that it is currently unknown how to compute the probability of a gene tree topology within the branches of a phylogenetic network. Here we present a novel method for computing the probability of gene tree topologies on phylogenetic networks and demonstrate its application to the inference of hybridization in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting. We reanalyze a Saccharomyces species data set for which multiple analyses had converged on a species tree candidate. Using our method, though, we show that an evolutionary hypothesis involving hybridization in this group has better support than one of strict divergence. A similar reanalysis on a group of three Drosophila species shows that the data is consistent with hybridization. Further, using extensive simulation studies, we demonstrate the power of gene tree topologies at obtaining accurate estimates of branch lengths and hybridization probabilities of a given phylogenetic network. Finally, we discuss identifiability issues with detecting hybridization, particularly in cases that involve extinction or incomplete sampling of taxa. © 2012 Yu et al."



Hyun Jung Park and
Luay Nakhleh. MURPAR: A fast heuristic for inferring parsimonious phylogenetic networks from multiple gene trees. In ISBRA12, Vol. 7292:213224 of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, software. Note: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hyun_Jung_Park2/publication/262318595_MURPAR_A_Fast_Heuristic_for_Inferring_Parsimonious_Phylogenetic_Networks_from_Multiple_Gene_Trees/links/54b7e7b50cf269d8cbf58cc4.pdf.
Toggle abstract
"Phylogenetic networks provide a graphical representation of evolutionary histories that involve nontreelike evolutionary events, such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). One approach for inferring phylogenetic networks is based on reconciling gene trees, assuming all incongruence among the gene trees is due to HGT. Several mathematical results and algorithms, both exact and heuristic, have been introduced to construct and analyze phylogenetic networks. Here, we address the computational problem of inferring phylogenetic networks with minimum reticulations from a collection of gene trees. As this problem is known to be NPhard even for a pair of gene trees, the problem at hand is very hard. In this paper, we present an efficient heuristic, MURPAR, for inferring a phylogenetic network from a collection of gene trees by using pairwise reconciliations of trees in the collection. Given the development of efficient and accurate methods for pairwise gene tree reconciliations, MURPAR inherits this efficiency and accuracy. Further, the method includes a formulation for combining pairwise reconciliations that is naturally amenable to an efficient integer linear programming (ILP) solution. We show that MURPAR produces more accurate results than other methods and is at least as fast, when run on synthetic and biological data. We believe that our method is especially important for rapidly obtaining estimates of genomescale evolutionary histories that can be further refined by more detailed and computeintensive methods. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."



Pawel Górecki and
Jerzy Tiuryn. Inferring evolutionary scenarios in the duplication, loss and horizontal gene transfer model. In Logic and Program Semantics, Vol. 7230:83105 of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9783642294853_7.
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"An Htree is a formal model of evolutionary scenario. It can be used to represent any processes with gene duplication and loss, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and speciation events. The model of Htrees, introduced in [26], is an extension of the duplicationloss model (DLmodel). Similarly to its ancestor, it has a number of interesting mathematical and biological properties. It is, however, more computationally complex than the DLmodel. In this paper, we primarily address the problem of inferring Htrees that are compatible with a given gene tree and a given phylogeny of species with HGTs. These results create a mathematical and computational foundation for a more general and practical problem of inferring HGTs from given gene and species trees with HGTs. We also demonstrate how our model can be used to support HGT hypotheses based on empirical data sets. © 2012 SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg."



Mukul S. Bansal,
Eric J. Alm and
Manolis Kellis. Efficient Algorithms for the Reconciliation Problem with Gene Duplication, Horizontal Transfer, and Loss. In ISMB12, Vol. 28(12):i283i291 of BIO, 2012. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Angst, Program Mowgli, Program RANGERDTL, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts225.
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"Motivation: Gene family evolution is driven by evolutionary events such as speciation, gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer and gene loss, and inferring these events in the evolutionary history of a given gene family is a fundamental problem in comparative and evolutionary genomics with numerous important applications. Solving this problem requires the use of a reconciliation framework, where the input consists of a gene family phylogeny and the corresponding species phylogeny, and the goal is to reconcile the two by postulating speciation, gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer and gene loss events. This reconciliation problem is referred to as duplicationtransferloss (DTL) reconciliation and has been extensively studied in the literature. Yet, even the fastest existing algorithms for DTL reconciliation are too slow for reconciling large gene families and for use in more sophisticated applications such as gene tree or species tree reconstruction.Results: We present two new algorithms for the DTL reconciliation problem that are dramatically faster than existing algorithms, both asymptotically and in practice. We also extend the standard DTL reconciliation model by considering distancedependent transfer costs, which allow for more accurate reconciliation and give an efficient algorithm for DTL reconciliation under this extended model. We implemented our new algorithms and demonstrated up to 100 000fold speedup over existing methods, using both simulated and biological datasets. This dramatic improvement makes it possible to use DTL reconciliation for performing rigorous evolutionary analyses of large gene families and enables its use in advanced reconciliationbased gene and species tree reconstruction methods. © The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press."



AnChiang Chu,
Jesper Jansson,
Richard Lemence,
Alban Mancheron and
KunMao Chao. Asymptotic Limits of a New Type of Maximization Recurrence with an Application to Bioinformatics. In TAMC12, Vol. 7287:177188 of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: from triplets, galled network, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network. Note: preliminary version.
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"We study the asymptotic behavior of a new type of maximization recurrence, defined as follows. Let k be a positive integer and p k(x) a polynomial of degree k satisfying p k(0) = 0. Define A 0 = 0 and for n ≥ 1, let A n = max 0≤i<n{A i+n kp k(i/n)}. We prove that lim n→∞A n/n n = sup{pk(x)/1x k : 0≤x<1}. We also consider two closely related maximization recurrences S n and S′ n, defined as S 0 = S′ 0 = 0, and for n ≥ 1, S n = max 0≤i<n{S i + i(ni)(ni1)/2} and S′ n = max 0≤i<n{S′ i + ( 3 ni) + 2i( 2 ni) + (ni)( 2 i)}. We prove that lim n→∞ S′n/3( 3 n) = 2(√31)/3 ≈ 0.488033..., resolving an open problem from Bioinformatics about rooted triplets consistency in phylogenetic networks. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."





Jesper Jansson and
Andrzej Lingas. Computing the rooted triplet distance between galled trees by counting triangles. In CPM12, Vol. 7354:385398 of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: distance between networks, explicit network, from network, galled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, triplet distance. Note: http://www.df.lth.se/~jj/Publications/d_rt_for_Galled_Trees5_CPM_2012.pdf.
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"We consider a generalization of the rooted triplet distance between two phylogenetic trees to two phylogenetic networks. We show that if each of the two given phylogenetic networks is a socalled galled tree with n leaves then the rooted triplet distance can be computed in o(n 2.688) time. Our upper bound is obtained by reducing the problem of computing the rooted triplet distance to that of counting monochromatic and almost monochromatic triangles in an undirected, edgecolored graph. To count different types of colored triangles in a graph efficiently, we extend an existing technique based on matrix multiplication and obtain several new related results that may be of independent interest. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."



Tetsuo Asano,
Jesper Jansson,
Kunihiko Sadakane,
Ryuhei Uehara and
Gabriel Valiente. Faster computation of the Robinson–Foulds distance between phylogenetic networks. In Information Sciences, Vol. 197:7790, 2012. Keywords: distance between networks, explicit network, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, polynomial, spread.
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"The RobinsonFoulds distance, a widely used metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, has recently been generalized to phylogenetic networks. Given two phylogenetic networks N 1, N 2 with n leaf labels and at most m nodes and e edges each, the RobinsonFoulds distance measures the number of clusters of descendant leaves not shared by N 1 and N 2. The fastest known algorithm for computing the RobinsonFoulds distance between N 1 and N 2 runs in O(me) time. In this paper, we improve the time complexity to O(ne/log n) for general phylogenetic networks and O(nm/log n) for general phylogenetic networks with bounded degree (assuming the word RAM model with a word length of ⌈logn⌉ bits), and to optimal O(m) time for leafouterplanar networks as well as optimal O(n) time for level1 phylogenetic networks (that is, galledtrees). We also introduce the natural concept of the minimum spread of a phylogenetic network and show how the running time of our new algorithm depends on this parameter. As an example, we prove that the minimum spread of a levelk network is at most k + 1, which implies that for one level1 and one levelk phylogenetic network, our algorithm runs in O((k + 1)e) time. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved."



Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk,
Nela Lekic and
Celine Scornavacca. A practical approximation algorithm for solving massive instances of hybridization number. In WABI12, Vol. 7534(430440) of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: agreement forest, approximation, explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program CycleKiller, Program Dendroscope, Program HybridNET, reconstruction, software. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.3417.
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"Reticulate events play an important role in determining evolutionary relationships. The problem of computing the minimum number of such events to explain discordance between two phylogenetic trees is a hard computational problem. In practice, exact solvers struggle to solve instances with reticulation number larger than 40. For such instances, one has to resort to heuristics and approximation algorithms. Here we present the algorithm CycleKiller which is the first approximation algorithm that can produce solutions verifiably close to optimality for instances with hundreds or even thousands of reticulations. Theoretically, the algorithm is an exponentialtime 2approximation (or 4approximation in its fastest mode). However, using simulations we demonstrate that in practice the algorithm runs quickly for large and difficult instances, producing solutions within one percent of optimality. An implementation of this algorithm, which extends the theoretical work of [14], has been made publicly available. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."



Maureen Stolzer,
Han Lai,
Minli Xu,
Deepa Sathaye,
Benjamin Vernot and
Dannie Durand. Inferring Duplications, Losses, Transfers, and Incomplete Lineage Sorting with NonBinary Species Trees. In ECCB12, Vol. 28(18):i409i415 of BIO, 2012. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Notung, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts386.
Toggle abstract
"Motivation: Gene duplication (D), transfer (T), loss (L) and incomplete lineage sorting (I) are crucial to the evolution of gene families and the emergence of novel functions.The history of these events can be inferred via comparison of gene and species trees, a process called reconciliation, yet current reconciliation algorithms model only a subset of these evolutionary processes. Results: We present an algorithm to reconcile a binary gene tree with a nonbinary species tree under a DTLI parsimony criterion. This is the first reconciliation algorithm to capture all four evolutionary processes driving tree incongruence and the first to reconcile nonbinary species trees with a transfer model. Our algorithm infers all optimal solutions and reports complete, temporally feasible event histories, giving the gene and species lineages in which each event occurred. It is fixedparameter tractable, with polytime complexity when the maximum species outdegree is fixed. Application of our algorithms to prokaryotic and eukaryotic data show that use of an incomplete event model has substantial impact on the events inferred and resulting biological conclusions. © The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press."



ThiHau Nguyen,
JeanPhilippe Doyon,
Stéphanie Pointet,
AnneMuriel Chifolleau Arigon,
Vincent Ranwez and
Vincent Berry. Accounting for Gene Tree Uncertainties Improves Gene Trees and Reconciliation Inference. In WABI12, Vol. 7534:123134 of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: duplication, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Mowgli, reconstruction. Note: http://hal.archivesouvertes.fr/hal00718347/en/.
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"We propose a reconciliation heuristic accounting for gene duplications, losses and horizontal transfers that specifically takes into account the uncertainties in the gene tree. Rearrangements are tried for gene tree edges that are weakly supported, and are accepted whenever they improve the reconciliation cost. We prove useful properties on the dynamic programming matrix used to compute reconciliations, which allows to speedup the tree space exploration when rearrangements are generated by Nearest Neighbor Interchanges (NNI) edit operations. Experimental results on simulated and real data confirm that running times are greatly reduced when considering the abovementioned optimization in comparison to the naïve rearrangement procedure. Results also show that gene trees modified by such NNI rearrangements are closer to the correct (simulated) trees and lead to more correct event predictions on average. The program is available at http://www.atgcmontpellier.fr/ Mowgli/. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."



Katharina Huber,
Vincent Moulton,
Andreas Spillner,
Sabine Storandt and
Radoslaw Suchecki. Computing a consensus of multilabeled trees. In ALENEX12, Pages 8492, 2012. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, exponential algorithm, phylogenetic network, phylogeny. Note: http://siam.omnibooksonline.com/2012ALENEX/data/papers/020.pdf.
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In this paper we consider two challenging problems that arise in the context of computing a consensus of a collection of multilabeled trees, namely (1) selecting a compatible collection of clusters on a multiset from an ordered list of such clusters and (2) optimally refining high degree vertices in a multilabeled tree. Forming such a consensus is part of an approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a set of species for which events such as genome duplication and hybridization have occurred in the past. We present exact algorithms for solving (1) and (2) that have an exponential runtime in the worst case. To give some impression of their performance in practice, we apply them to simulated input and to a real biological data set highlighting the impact of several structural properties of the input on the performance.



Cayla McBee. Generalizing Fourier Calculus on Evolutionary Trees to Splits Networks. In ISPAN'12, Pages 149155, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from sequences, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, split network, statistical model.
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"Biologists have been interested in Phylogenetics, the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms, for more than 140 years. In spite of this, it has only been in the last 40 years that advances in technology and the availability of DNA sequences have led to statistical, computational and algorithmic work on determining evolutionary relatedness between organisms. One method of determining historical relationships between organisms is to assume a group based evolutionary model and use a discrete Fourier transform. The 1993 paper 'Fourier Calculus on Evolutionary Trees' by L.A. Szekely, M.A. Steel and P.L. Erdos outlines this process. The transform presented in Szekely et al provides an invertible relationship between phylogenetic trees and expected frequencies of nucleotide patterns in nucleotide sequences. This implies that given a set of nucleotide sequences from various organisms it is possible to construct a phylogenetic tree that represents the historical relationships of those organisms. Some scenarios are poorly described by phylogenetic trees and there are biological and statistical reasons for using networks to model phylogenetic relationships. Given this motivation I have generalized Szekely et al's result to apply to a specific type of phylogenetic network known as a splits network. © 2012 IEEE."



Dan Levy and
Lior Pachter. The NeighborNet Algorithm. In Advances in Applied Mathematics, Vol. 47(2):240258, 2011. Keywords: abstract network, circular split system, evaluation, from distances, NeighborNet, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, split network. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0702515.
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"The neighborjoining algorithm is a popular phylogenetics method for constructing trees from dissimilarity maps. The neighbornet algorithm is an extension of the neighborjoining algorithm and is used for constructing split networks. We begin by describing the output of neighbornet in terms of the tessellation of M̄0n(R) by associahedra. This highlights the fact that neighbornet outputs a tree in addition to a circular ordering and we explain when the neighbornet tree is the neighborjoining tree. A key observation is that the tree constructed in existing implementations of neighbornet is not a neighborjoining tree. Next, we show that neighbornet is a greedy algorithm for finding circular split systems of minimal balanced length. This leads to an interpretation of neighbornet as a greedy algorithm for the traveling salesman problem. The algorithm is optimal for Kalmanson matrices, from which it follows that neighbornet is consistent and has optimal radius 12. We also provide a statistical interpretation for the balanced length for a circular split system as the length based on weighted least squares estimates of the splits. We conclude with applications of these results and demonstrate the implications of our theorems for a recently published comparison of Papuan and Austronesian languages. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved."



Shlomo Moran,
Sagi Snir and
WingKin Sung. Partial Convex Recolorings of Trees and Galled Networks: Tight Upper and Lower bounds. In ACM Transactions on Algorithms, Vol. 7(4), 2011. Keywords: evaluation, galled tree, phylogenetic network. Note: http://www.cs.technion.ac.il/~moran/r/PS/gnetsTOA7Feb2007.pdf.
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"A coloring of a graph is convex if the vertices that pertain to any color induce a connected subgraph; a partial coloring (which assigns colors to a subset of the vertices) is convex if it can be completed to a convex (total) coloring. Convex coloring has applications in fields such as phylogenetics, communication or transportation networks, etc. When a coloring of a graph is not convex, a natural question is how far it is from a convex one. This problem is denoted as convex recoloring (CR).While the initial works on CR defined and studied the problem on trees, recent efforts aim at either generalizing the underlying graphs or specializing the input colorings. In this work, we extend the underlying graph and the input coloring to partially colored galled networks. We show that although determining whether a coloring is convex on an arbitrary network is hard, it can be found efficiently on galled networks. We present a fixed parameter tractable algorithm that finds the recoloring distance of such a network whose running time is quadratic in the network size and exponential in that distance. This complexity is achieved by amortized analysis that uses a novel technique for contracting colored graphs that seems to be of independent interest. © 2011 ACM."



JeanPhilippe Doyon,
Celine Scornavacca,
Konstantin Yu Gorbunov,
Gergely J. Szöllösi,
Vincent Ranwez and
Vincent Berry. An efficient algorithm for gene/species trees parsimonious reconciliation with losses, duplications, and transfers. In Proceedings of the Eighth RECOMB Comparative Genomics Satellite Workshop (RECOMBCG'10), Vol. 6398:93108 of LNCS, springer, 2011. Keywords: branch length, duplication, dynamic programming, explicit network, from multilabeled tree, from species tree, from unrooted trees, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Mowgli, reconstruction. Note: http://www.lirmm.fr/~vberry/Publis/MPRDoyonEtAl.pdf, software available at http://www.atgcmontpellier.fr/MPR/.
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"Tree reconciliation methods aim at estimating the evolutionary events that cause discrepancy between gene trees and species trees. We provide a discrete computational model that considers duplications, transfers and losses of genes. The model yields a fast and exact algorithm to infer time consistent and most parsimonious reconciliations. Then we study the conditions under which parsimony is able to accurately infer such events. Overall, it performs well even under realistic rates, transfers being in general less accurately recovered than duplications. An implementation is freely available at http://www.atgc montpellier.fr/MPR. © 2010 SpringerVerlag."



Mukul S. Bansal,
J. Peter Gogarten and
Ron Shamir. Detecting Highways of Horizontal Gene Transfer. In Proceedings of the Eighth RECOMB Comparative Genomics Satellite Workshop (RECOMBCG'10), Vol. 6398:109120 of LNCS, springer, 2011. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://www.cs.iastate.edu/~bansal/Highways_RCG10.pdf.
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"In a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event a gene is transferred between two species that do not share an ancestordescendant relationship. Typically, no more than a few genes are horizontally transferred between any two species. However, several studies identified pairs of species between which many different genes were horizontally transferred. Such a pair is said to be linked by a highway of gene sharing. We present a method for inferring such highways. Our method is based on the fact that the evolutionary histories of horizontally transferred genes disagree with the corresponding species phylogeny. Specifically, given a set of gene trees and a trusted rooted species tree, each gene tree is first decomposed into its constituent quartet trees and the quartets that are inconsistent with the species tree are identified. Our method finds a pair of species such that a highway between them explains the largest (normalized) fraction of inconsistent quartets. For a problem on n species, our method requires O(n 4) time, which is optimal with respect to the quartets input size. An application of our method to a dataset of 1128 genes from 11 cyanobacterial species, as well as to simulated datasets, illustrates the efficacy of our method. © 2010 SpringerVerlag."



Celine Scornavacca,
Franziska Zickmann and
Daniel H. Huson. Tanglegrams for Rooted Phylogenetic Trees and Networks. In ISMB11, Vol. 27(13):i248i256 of BIO, 2011. Keywords: from network, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Dendroscope, tanglegram, visualization. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr210.
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"Motivation: In systematic biology, one is often faced with the task of comparing different phylogenetic trees, in particular in multigene analysis or cospeciation studies. One approach is to use a tanglegram in which two rooted phylogenetic trees are drawn opposite each other, using auxiliary lines to connect matching taxa. There is an increasing interest in using rooted phylogenetic networks to represent evolutionary history, so as to explicitly represent reticulate events, such as horizontal gene transfer, hybridization or reassortment. Thus, the question arises how to define and compute a tanglegram for such networks. Results: In this article, we present the first formal definition of a tanglegram for rooted phylogenetic networks and present a heuristic approach for computing one, called the NNtanglegram method. We compare the performance of our method with existing tree tanglegram algorithms and also show a typical application to real biological datasets. For maximum usability, the algorithm does not require that the trees or networks are bifurcating or bicombining, or that they are on identical taxon sets. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press."



Alethea Rea. Statistical approaches to phylogenetic networks, recombination and testing of incongruence. PhD thesis, The University of Auckland, New Zealand, 2011. Keywords: abstract network, AIC, BIC, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, split, split network, statistical model. Note: https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/67624.



Changiz Eslahchi and
Reza Hassanzadeh. New Algorithm for Constructing Supernetworks from Partial Trees. In MCCMB11, Pages 106107, 2011. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SNSA, reconstruction, simulated annealing, split network. Note: http://mccmb.belozersky.msu.ru/2011/mccmb11.pdf#page=106.



Louxin Zhang,
Yen Kaow Ng,
Taoyang Wu and
Yu Zheng. Network model and efficient method for detecting relative duplications or horizontal gene transfers. In ICCABS11, Pages 214219, 2011. Keywords: dynamic programming, explicit network, from network, from rooted trees, from species tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction.
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"Background: Horizontal gene transfer and gene duplication are two significant forces behind genome evolution. As more and more wellsupported examples of HGTs are being revealed, there is a growing awareness that HGT is more widespread than previously thought, occurring often not only within bacteria, but also between species remotely related such as bacteria and plants or plants and animals. Although a substantial number of genomic sequences are known, HGT inference remains challenging. Parsimonybased inferences of HGT events are typically NPhard under the framework of gene tree and species tree comparison; it is even more timeconsuming if the maximum likelihood approach is used. The fact that gene tree and species tree incongruence can be further confounded by gene duplication and gene loss events motivates us to incorporate considerations for these events into our inference of HGT events. Similarly, it will be beneficial if known HGT events are considered in the inference of gene duplications and gene losses. © 2011 IEEE."



Jaroslaw Byrka,
Pawel Gawrychowski,
Katharina Huber and
Steven Kelk. Worstcase optimal approximation algorithms for maximizing triplet consistency within phylogenetic networks. In Journal of Discrete Algorithms, Vol. 8(1):6575, 2010. Keywords: approximation, explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0710.3258.
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"The study of phylogenetic networks is of great interest to computational evolutionary biology and numerous different types of such structures are known. This article addresses the following question concerning rooted versions of phylogenetic networks. What is the maximum value of p ∈ [0, 1] such that for every input set T of rooted triplets, there exists some network N such that at least p  T  of the triplets are consistent with N? We call an algorithm that computes such a network (where p is maximum) worstcase optimal. Here we prove that the set containing all triplets (the full triplet set) in some sense defines p. Moreover, given a network N that obtains a fraction p′ for the full triplet set (for any p′), we show how to efficiently modify N to obtain a fraction ≥ p′ for any given triplet set T. We demonstrate the power of this insight by presenting a worstcase optimal result for level1 phylogenetic networks improving considerably upon the 5/12 fraction obtained recently by Jansson, Nguyen and Sung. For level2 phylogenetic networks we show that p ≥ 0.61. We emphasize that, because we are taking  T  as a (trivial) upper bound on the size of an optimal solution for each specific input T, the results in this article do not exclude the existence of approximation algorithms that achieve approximation ratio better than p. Finally, we note that all the results in this article also apply to weighted triplet sets. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved."



Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk,
Regula Rupp and
Daniel H. Huson. Phylogenetic Networks Do not Need to Be Complex: Using Fewer Reticulations to Represent Conflicting Clusters. In ISMB10, Vol. 26(12):i124i131 of BIO, 2010. Keywords: from clusters, level k phylogenetic network, Program Dendroscope, Program HybridInterleave, Program HybridNumber, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btq202, with proofs: http://arxiv.org/abs/0910.3082.
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"Phylogenetic trees are widely used to display estimates of how groups of species are evolved. Each phylogenetic tree can be seen as a collection of clusters, subgroups of the species that evolved from a common ancestor. When phylogenetic trees are obtained for several datasets (e.g. for different genes), then their clusters are often contradicting. Consequently, the set of all clusters of such a dataset cannot be combined into a single phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that can be used to display more complex evolutionary histories, including reticulate events, such as hybridizations, recombinations and horizontal gene transfers. Here, we present the new CASS algorithm that can combine any set of clusters into a phylogenetic network. We show that the networks constructed by CASS are usually simpler than networks constructed by other available methods. Moreover, we show that CASS is guaranteed to produce a network with at most two reticulations per biconnected component, whenever such a network exists. We have implemented CASS and integrated it into the freely available Dendroscope software. Contact: l.j.j.v.iersel@gmail.com. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press."



Tetsuo Asano,
Jesper Jansson,
Kunihiko Sadakane,
Ryuhei Uehara and
Gabriel Valiente. Faster Computation of the RobinsonFoulds Distance between Phylogenetic Networks. In CPM10, Vol. 6129:190201 of LNCS, springer, 2010. Keywords: distance between networks, explicit network, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, polynomial, spread. Note: http://hdl.handle.net/10119/9859, slides available at http://cs.nyu.edu/parida/CPM2010/MainPage_files/18.pdf.
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"The RobinsonFoulds distance, which is the most widely used metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, has recently been generalized to phylogenetic networks. Given two networks N1,N2 with n leaves, m nodes, and e edges, the RobinsonFoulds distance measures the number of clusters of descendant leaves that are not shared by N1 and N2. The fastest known algorithm for computing the RobinsonFoulds distance between those networks runs in O(m(m + e)) time. In this paper, we improve the time complexity to O(n(m+ e)/ log n) for general networks and O(nm/log n) for general networks with bounded degree, and to optimal O(m + e) time for planar phylogenetic networks and boundedlevel phylogenetic networks.We also introduce the natural concept of the minimum spread of a phylogenetic network and show how the running time of our new algorithm depends on this parameter. As an example, we prove that the minimum spread of a levelk phylogenetic network is at most k + 1, which implies that for two levelk phylogenetic networks, our algorithm runs in O((k + 1)(m + e)) time. © SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010."



Yufeng Wu. Close Lower and Upper Bounds for the Minimum Reticulate Network of Multiple Phylogenetic Trees. In ISMB10, Vol. 26(12):i140i148 of BIO, 2010. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PIRN, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btq198.
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"Motivation: Reticulate network is a model for displaying and quantifying the effects of complex reticulate processes on the evolutionary history of species undergoing reticulate evolution. A central computational problem on reticulate networks is: given a set of phylogenetic trees (each for some region of the genomes), reconstruct the most parsimonious reticulate network (called the minimum reticulate network) that combines the topological information contained in the given trees. This problem is wellknown to be NPhard. Thus, existing approaches for this problem either work with only two input trees or make simplifying topological assumptions. Results: We present novel results on the minimum reticulate network problem. Unlike existing approaches, we address the fully general problem: there is no restriction on the number of trees that are input, and there is no restriction on the form of the allowed reticulate network. We present lower and upper bounds on the minimum number of reticulation events in the minimum reticulate network (and infer an approximately parsimonious reticulate network). A program called PIRN implements these methods, which also outputs a graphical representation of the inferred network. Empirical results on simulated and biological data show that our methods are practical for a wide range of data. More importantly, the lower and upper bounds match for many datasets (especially when the number of trees is small or reticulation level is low), and this allows us to solve the minimum reticulate network problem exactly for these datasets. Availability: A software tool, PIRN, is available for download from the web page: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/ywu. Contact: ywu@engr.uconn.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press."



Yufeng Wu and
Jiayin Wang. Fast Computation of the Exact Hybridization Number of Two Phylogenetic Trees. In ISBRA10, Vol. 6053:203214 of LNCS, springer, 2010. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, integer linear programming, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridNumber, Program SPRDist, SPR distance. Note: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~ywu/Papers/ISBRA10WuWang.pdf.
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"Hybridization is a reticulate evolutionary process. An established problem on hybridization is computing the minimum number of hybridization events, called the hybridization number, needed in the evolutionary history of two phylogenetic trees. This problem is known to be NPhard. In this paper, we present a new practical method to compute the exact hybridization number. Our approach is based on an integer linear programming formulation. Simulation results on biological and simulated datasets show that our method (as implemented in program SPRDist) is more efficient and robust than an existing method. © 2010 SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg."







Chris Whidden,
Robert G. Beiko and
Norbert Zeh. Fast FPT Algorithms for Computing Rooted Agreement Forests: Theory and Experiments. In Proceedings of the ninth International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA'10), Vol. 6049:141153 of LNCS, springer, 2010. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridInterleave, reconstruction, SPR distance. Note: https://www.cs.dal.ca/sites/default/files/technical_reports/CS201003.pdf.
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"We improve on earlier FPT algorithms for computing a rooted maximum agreement forest (MAF) or a maximum acyclic agreement forest (MAAF) of a pair of phylogenetic trees. Their sizes give the subtreepruneandregraft (SPR) distance and the hybridization number of the trees, respectively. We introduce new branching rules that reduce the running time of the algorithms from O(3 kn) and O(3 kn log n) to O(2.42 kn) and O(2.42 kn log n), respectively. In practice, the speed up may be much more than predicted by the worstcase analysis.We confirm this intuition experimentally by computing MAFs for simulated trees and trees inferred from protein sequence data. We show that our algorithm is orders of magnitude faster and can handle much larger trees and SPR distances than the best previous methods, treeSAT and sprdist. © SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010."





Stefan Grünewald,
Vincent Moulton and
Andreas Spillner. Consistency of the QNet algorithm for generating planar split networks from weighted quartets. In DAM, Vol. 157(10):23252334, 2009. Keywords: abstract network, consistency, from quartets, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program QNet, reconstruction, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dam.2008.06.038.
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"Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of evolutionary or phylogenetic trees that allow the representation of conflicting signals or alternative evolutionary histories in a single diagram. Recently the QuartetNet or "QNet" method was introduced, a method for computing a special kind of phylogenetic network called a split network from a collection of weighted quartet trees (i.e. phylogenetic trees with 4 leaves). This can be viewed as a quartet analogue of the distancebased NeighborNet (NNet) method for constructing outerlabeled planar split networks. In this paper, we prove that QNet is a consistent method, that is, we prove that if QNet is applied to a collection of weighted quartets arising from a circular split weight function, then it will return precisely this function. This key property of QNet not only ensures that it is guaranteed to produce a tree if the input corresponds to a tree, and an outerlabeled planar split network if the input corresponds to such a network, but also provides the main guiding principle for the design of the method. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved."



Ulrik Brandes and
Sabine Cornelsen. Phylogenetic Graph Models Beyond Trees. In DAM, Vol. 157(10):23612369, 2009. Keywords: abstract network, cactus graph, from splits, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://www.inf.unikonstanz.de/~cornelse/Papers/bcpgmbt07.pdf.
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"A graph model for a set S of splits of a set X consists of a graph and a map from X to the vertices of the graph such that the inclusionminimal cuts of the graph represent S. Phylogenetic trees are graph models in which the graph is a tree. We show that the model can be generalized to a cactus (i.e. a tree of edges and cycles) without losing computational efficiency. A cactus can represent a quadratic rather than linear number of splits in linear space. We show how to decide in linear time in the size of a succinct representation of S whether a set of splits has a cactus model, and if so construct it within the same time bounds. As a byproduct, we show how to construct the subset of all compatible splits and a maximal compatible set of splits in linear time. Note that it is N Pcomplete to find a compatible subset of maximum size. Finally, we briefly discuss further generalizations of tree models. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved."



Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk and
Matthias Mnich. Uniqueness, intractability and exact algorithms: reflections on levelk phylogenetic networks. In JBCB, Vol. 7(4):597623, 2009. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, uniqueness. Note: http://arxiv.org/pdf/0712.2932v2.



Daniel H. Huson. Drawing Rooted Phylogenetic Networks. In TCBB, Vol. 6(1):103109, 2009. Keywords: explicit network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Dendroscope, Program SplitsTree, visualization. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2008.58.
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"The evolutionary history of a collection of species is usually represented by a phylogenetic tree. Sometimes, phylogenetic networks are used as a means of representing reticulate evolution or of showing uncertainty and incompatibilities in evolutionary datasets. This is often done using unrooted phylogenetic networks such as split networks, due in part, to the availability of software (SplitsTree) for their computation and visualization. In this paper we discuss the problem of drawing rooted phylogenetic networks as cladograms or phylograms in a number of different views that are commonly used for rooted trees. Implementations of the algorithms are available in new releases of the Dendroscope and SplitsTree programs. © 2006 IEEE."





Stefan Grünewald,
Katharina Huber,
Vincent Moulton,
Charles Semple and
Andreas Spillner. Characterizing weak compatibility in terms of weighted quartets. In Advances in Applied Mathematics, Vol. 42(3):329341, 2009. Keywords: abstract network, characterization, from quartets, split network, weak hierarchy. Note: http://www.math.canterbury.ac.nz/~c.semple/papers/GHMSS08.pdf, slides at http://www.lirmm.fr/miep08/slides/12_02_huber.pdf.



Gabriel Cardona,
Mercè Llabrés,
Francesc Rosselló and
Gabriel Valiente. Metrics for phylogenetic networks I: Generalizations of the RobinsonFoulds metric. In TCBB, Vol. 6(1):4661, 2009. Keywords: distance between networks, explicit network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, time consistent network, tree child network, tripartition distance. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2008.70.
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"The assessment of phylogenetic network reconstruction methods requires the ability to compare phylogenetic networks. This is the first in a series of papers devoted to the analysis and comparison of metrics for treechild time consistent phylogenetic networks on the same set of taxa. In this paper, we study three metrics that have already been introduced in the literature: the RobinsonFoulds distance, the tripartitions distance and the $mu$distance. They generalize to networks the classical RobinsonFoulds or partition distance for phylogenetic trees. We analyze the behavior of these metrics by studying their least and largest values and when they achieve them. As a byproduct of this study, we obtain tight bounds on the size of a treechild time consistent phylogenetic network. © 2006 IEEE."



Gabriel Cardona,
Mercè Llabrés,
Francesc Rosselló and
Gabriel Valiente. Metrics for phylogenetic networks II: Nodal and triplets metrics. In TCBB, Vol. 6(3):454469, 2009. Keywords: distance between networks, phylogenetic network, phylogeny. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2008.127.
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"The assessment of phylogenetic network reconstruction methods requires the ability to compare phylogenetic networks. This is the second in a series of papers devoted to the analysis and comparison of metrics for treechild time consistent phylogenetic networks on the same set of taxa. In this paper, we generalize to phylogenetic networks two metrics that have already been introduced in the literature for phylogenetic trees: the nodal distance and the triplets distance. We prove that they are metrics on any class of tree child time consistent phylogenetic networks on the same set of taxa, as well as some basic properties for them. To prove these results, we introduce a reduction/expansion procedure that can be used not only to establish properties of treechild time consistent phylogenetic networks by induction, but also to generate all treechild time consistent phylogenetic networks with a given number of leaves. © 2009 IEEE."



Gabriel Cardona,
Mercè Llabrés,
Francesc Rosselló and
Gabriel Valiente. On Nakhleh's metric for reduced phylogenetic networks. In TCBB, Vol. 6(4):629638, 2009. Keywords: distance between networks, phylogenetic network, phylogeny. Note: Preliminary versions: http://arxiv.org/abs/0809.0110 and http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.2354v1.
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"We prove that Nakhleh's metric for reduced phylogenetic networks is also a metric on the classes of treechild phylogenetic networks, semibinary treesibling time consistent phylogenetic networks, and multilabeled phylogenetic trees. We also prove that it separates distinguishable phylogenetic networks. In this way, it becomes the strongest dissimilarity measure for phylogenetic networks available so far. Furthermore, we propose a generalization of that metric that separates arbitrary phylogenetic networks. © 2009 IEEE."





Ran LibeskindHadas and
Michael A. Charleston. On the Computational Complexity of the Reticulate Cophylogeny Reconstruction Problem. In JCB, Vol. 16(1):105117, 2009. Keywords: cophylogeny, heuristic, NP complete, parsimony, phylogenetic network, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2008.0084.
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"The cophylogeny reconstruction problem is that of finding minimal cost explanations of differences between evolutionary histories of ecologically linked groups of biological organisms. We present a proof that shows that the general problem of reconciling evolutionary histories is NPcomplete and provide a sharp boundary where this intractability begins. We also show that a related problem, that of finding Pareto optimal solutions, is NPhard. As a byproduct of our results, we give a framework by which metaheuristics can be applied to find good solutions to this problem. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2009."



ThuHien To and
Michel Habib. Levelk Phylogenetic Networks Are Constructable from a Dense Triplet Set in Polynomial Time. In CPM09, (5577):275288, springer, 2009. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, level k phylogenetic network, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.1657.
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"For a given dense triplet set Τ there exist two natural questions [7]: Does there exist any phylogenetic network consistent with Τ? In case such networks exist, can we find an effective algorithm to construct one? For cases of networks of levels k = 0, 1 or 2, these questions were answered in [1,6,7,8,10] with effective polynomial algorithms. For higher levels k, partial answers were recently obtained in [11] with an O(/Τ/k+1)time algorithm for simple networks. In this paper, we give a complete answer to the general case, solving a problem proposed in [7]. The main idea of our proof is to use a special property of SNsets in a levelk network. As a consequence, for any fixed k, we can also find a levelk network with the minimum number of reticulations, if one exists, in polynomial time. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg."



Philippe Gambette,
Vincent Berry and
Christophe Paul. The structure of levelk phylogenetic networks. In CPM09, Vol. 5577:289300 of LNCS, springer, 2009. Keywords: coalescent, explicit network, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, Program Recodon. Note: http://hallirmm.ccsd.cnrs.fr/lirmm00371485/en/.
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"Evolution is usually described as a phylogenetic tree, but due to some exchange of genetic material, it can be represented as a phylogenetic network which has an underlying tree structure. The notion of level was recently introduced as a parameter on realistic kinds of phylogenetic networks to express their complexity and treelikeness. We study the structure of levelk networks, and how they can be decomposed into levelk generators. We also provide a polynomial time algorithm which takes as input the set of levelk generators and builds the set of level(k + 1) generators. Finally, with a simulation study, we evaluate the proportion of levelk phylogenetic networks among networks generated according to the coalescent model with recombination. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg."



Daniel H. Huson,
Regula Rupp,
Vincent Berry,
Philippe Gambette and
Christophe Paul. Computing Galled Networks from Real Data. In ISMBECCB09, Vol. 25(12):i85i93 of BIO, 2009. Keywords: abstract network, cluster containment, explicit network, FPT, from clusters, from rooted trees, galled network, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Dendroscope, reconstruction. Note: http://hallirmm.ccsd.cnrs.fr/lirmm00368545/en/.
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"Motivation: Developing methods for computing phylogenetic networks from biological data is an important problem posed by molecular evolution and much work is currently being undertaken in this area. Although promising approaches exist, there are no tools available that biologists could easily and routinely use to compute rooted phylogenetic networks on real datasets containing tens or hundreds of taxa. Biologists are interested in clades, i.e. groups of monophyletic taxa, and these are usually represented by clusters in a rooted phylogenetic tree. The problem of computing an optimal rooted phylogenetic network from a set of clusters, is hard, in general. Indeed, even the problem of just determining whether a given network contains a given cluster is hard. Hence, some researchers have focused on topologically restricted classes of networks, such as galled trees and levelk networks, that are more tractable, but have the practical drawback that a given set of clusters will usually not possess such a representation. Results: In this article, we argue that galled networks (a generalization of galled trees) provide a good tradeoff between level of generality and tractability. Any set of clusters can be represented by some galled network and the question whether a cluster is contained in such a network is easy to solve. Although the computation of an optimal galled network involves successively solving instances of two different NPcomplete problems, in practice our algorithm solves this problem exactly on large datasets containing hundreds of taxa and many reticulations in seconds, as illustrated by a dataset containing 279 prokaryotes. © 2009 The Author(s)."





Laura S. Kubatko. Identifying Hybridization Events in the Presence of Coalescence via Model Selection. In Systematic Biology, Vol. 58(5):478488, 2009. Keywords: AIC, BIC, branch length, coalescent, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, hybridization, lineage sorting, model selection, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, statistical model. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syp055.



Chen Meng and
Laura S. Kubatko. Detecting hybrid speciation in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting using gene tree incongruence: A model. In Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 75(1):3545, 2009. Keywords: bayesian, coalescent, from network, from rooted trees, hybridization, likelihood, lineage sorting, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, statistical model. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tpb.2008.10.004.
Toggle abstract
"The application of phylogenetic inference methods, to data for a set of independent genes sampled randomly throughout the genome, often results in substantial incongruence in the singlegene phylogenetic estimates. Among the processes known to produce discord between singlegene phylogenies, two of the best studied in a phylogenetic context are hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. Much recent attention has focused on the development of methods for estimating species phylogenies in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, but phylogenetic models that allow for hybridization have been more limited. Here we propose a model that allows incongruence in singlegene phylogenies to be due to both hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, with the goal of determining the contribution of hybridization to observed gene tree incongruence in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting. Using our model, we propose methods for estimating the extent of the role of hybridization in both a likelihood and a Bayesian framework. The performance of our methods is examined using both simulated and empirical data. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved."





Chris Whidden and
Norbert Zeh. A Unifying View on Approximation and FPT of Agreement Forests. In WABI09, Vol. 5724:390402 of LNCS, Springer, 2009. Keywords: agreement forest, approximation, explicit network, FPT, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: https://www.cs.dal.ca/sites/default/files/technical_reports/CS200902.pdf.
Toggle abstract
"We provide a unifying view on the structure of maximum (acyclic) agreement forests of rooted and unrooted phylogenies. This enables us to obtain linear or O(n log n)time 3approximation and improved fixedparameter algorithms for the subtree prune and regraft distance between two rooted phylogenies, the tree bisection and reconnection distance between two unrooted phylogenies, and the hybridization number of two rooted phylogenies. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg."



Gabriel Cardona,
Francesc Rosselló and
Gabriel Valiente. Tripartitions do not always discriminate phylogenetic networks. In MBIO, Vol. 211(2):356370, 2008. Keywords: distance between networks, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Bio PhyloNetwork, tree child network, tripartition distance. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.2376, slides available at http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/webseminars/pg+ws/2007/plg/plgw01/0904/valiente/.
Toggle abstract
"Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of nontreelike evolutionary events, like recombination, hybridization, or lateral gene transfer. In a recent series of papers devoted to the study of reconstructibility of phylogenetic networks, Moret, Nakhleh, Warnow and collaborators introduced the socalled tripartition metric for phylogenetic networks. In this paper we show that, in fact, this tripartition metric does not satisfy the separation axiom of distances (zero distance means isomorphism, or, in a more relaxed version, zero distance means indistinguishability in some specific sense) in any of the subclasses of phylogenetic networks where it is claimed to do so. We also present a subclass of phylogenetic networks whose members can be singled out by means of their sets of tripartitions (or even clusters), and hence where the latter can be used to define a meaningful metric. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved."



Philippe Gambette and
Daniel H. Huson. Improved Layout of Phylogenetic Networks. In TCBB, Vol. 5(3):472479, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, software, split network, visualization. Note: http://hallirmm.ccsd.cnrs.fr/lirmm00309694/en/.
Toggle abstract
"Split networks are increasingly being used in phylogenetic analysis. Usually, a simple equalangle algorithm is used to draw such networks, producing layouts that leave much room for improvement. Addressing the problem of producing better layouts of split networks, this paper presents an algorithm for maximizing the area covered by the network, describes an extension of the equaldaylight algorithm to networks, looks into using a spring embedder, and discusses how to construct rooted split networks. © 2008 IEEE."



Stefan Grünewald,
Katharina Huber and
Qiong Wu. Two novel closure rules for constructing phylogenetic supernetworks. In BMB, Vol. 70(7):19061924, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, from splits, from unrooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program MY CLOSURE, reconstruction, supernetwork. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.0283, slides available at http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/webseminars/pg+ws/2007/plg/plgw01/0904/huber/.
Toggle abstract
"A contemporary and fundamental problem faced by many evolutionary biologists is how to puzzle together a collection P of partial trees (leaflabeled trees whose leaves are bijectively labeled by species or, more generally, taxa, each supported by, e.g., a gene) into an overall parental structure that displays all trees in P. This already difficult problem is complicated by the fact that the trees in P regularly support conflicting phylogenetic relationships and are not on the same but only overlapping taxa sets. A desirable requirement on the sought after parental structure, therefore, is that it can accommodate the observed conflicts. Phylogenetic networks are a popular tool capable of doing precisely this. However, not much is known about how to construct such networks from partial trees, a notable exception being the Zclosure supernetwork approach, which is based on the Zclosure rule, and the Qimputation approach. Although attractive approaches, they both suffer from the fact that the generated networks tend to be multidimensional making it necessary to apply some kind of filter to reduce their complexity. To avoid having to resort to a filter, we follow a different line of attack in this paper and develop closure rules for generating circular phylogenetic networks which have the attractive property that they can be represented in the plane. In particular, we introduce the novel Y(closure) rule and show that this rule on its own or in combination with one of Meacham's closure rules (which we call the Mrule) has some very desirable theoretical properties. In addition, we present a case study based on Rivera et al. "ring of life" to explore the reconstructive power of the M and Yrule and also reanalyze an Arabidopsis thaliana data set. © 2008 Society for Mathematical Biology."





Gabriel Cardona,
Francesc Rosselló and
Gabriel Valiente. A Perl Package and an Alignment Tool for Phylogenetic Networks. In BMCB, Vol. 9:175, 2008. Keywords: distance between networks, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Bio PhyloNetwork, tree child network, tree sibling network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/147121059175.
Toggle abstract
"Background: Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of evolutionary events acting at the population level, like recombination between genes, hybridization between lineages, and lateral gene transfer. While most phylogenetics tools implement a wide range of algorithms on phylogenetic trees, there exist only a few applications to work with phylogenetic networks, none of which are opensource libraries, and they do not allow for the comparative analysis of phylogenetic networks by computing distances between them or aligning them. Results: In order to improve this situation, we have developed a Perl package that relies on the BioPerl bundle and implements many algorithms on phylogenetic networks. We have also developed a Java applet that makes use of the aforementioned Perl package and allows the user to make simple experiments with phylogenetic networks without having to develop a program or Perl script by him or herself. Conclusion: The Perl package is available as part of the BioPerl bundle, and can also be downloaded. A webbased application is also available (see availability and requirements). The Perl package includes full documentation of all its features. © 2008 Cardona et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Stephen J. Willson. Reconstruction of certain phylogenetic networks from the genomes at their leaves. In JTB, Vol. 252(2):185376, 2008. Keywords: labeling, polynomial. Note: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~swillson/ReconstructNormalHomopap6.pdf.
Toggle abstract
"A network N is a rooted acyclic digraph. A baseset X for N is a subset of vertices including the root (or outgroup), all leaves, and all vertices of outdegree 1. A simple model of evolution is considered in which all characters are binary and in which backmutations occur only at hybrid vertices. It is assumed that the genome is known for each member of the baseset X. If the network is known and is assumed to be "normal," then it is proved that the genome of every vertex is uniquely determined and can be explicitly reconstructed. Under additional hypotheses involving timeconsistency and separation of the hybrid vertices, the network itself can also be reconstructed from the genomes of all members of X. An explicit polynomialtime procedure is described for performing the reconstruction. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved."



Andreas W. M. Dress,
Katharina Huber,
Jacobus Koolen and
Vincent Moulton. Compatible decompositions and block realizations of finite metrics. In EJC, Vol. 29(7):16171633, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, block realization, from distances, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, realization, reconstruction. Note: http://www.ims.nus.edu.sg/preprints/200721.pdf.
Toggle abstract
"Given a metric D defined on a finite set X, we define a finite collection D of metrics on X to be a compatible decomposition of D if any two distinct metrics in D are linearly independent (considered as vectors in RX × X), D = ∑d ∈ D d holds, and there exist points x, x′ ∈ X for any two distinct metrics d, d′ in D such that d (x, y) d′ (x′, y) = 0 holds for every y ∈ X. In this paper, we show that such decompositions are in onetoone correspondence with (isomorphism classes of) block realizations of D, that is, graph realizations G of D for which G is a block graph and for which every vertex in G not labelled by X has degree at least 3 and is a cut point of G. This generalizes a fundamental result in phylogenetic combinatorics that states that a metric D defined on X can be realized by a tree if and only if there exists a compatible decomposition D of D such that all metrics d ∈ D are split metrics, and lays the foundation for a more general theory of metric decompositions that will be explored in future papers. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved."



Tobias Kloepper and
Daniel H. Huson. Drawing explicit phylogenetic networks and their integration into SplitsTree. In BMCEB, Vol. 8(22), 2008. Keywords: explicit network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, software, split network, visualization. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/14712148822.
Toggle abstract
"Background. SplitsTree provides a framework for the calculation of phylogenetic trees and networks. It contains a wide variety of methods for the import/export, calculation and visualization of phylogenetic information. The software is developed in Java and implements a command line tool as well as a graphical user interface. Results. In this article, we present solutions to two important problems in the field of phylogenetic networks. The first problem is the visualization of explicit phylogenetic networks. To solve this, we present a modified version of the equal angle algorithm that naturally integrates reticulations into the layout process and thus leads to an appealing visualization of these networks. The second problem is the availability of explicit phylogenetic network methods for the general user. To advance the usage of explicit phylogenetic networks by biologists further, we present an extension to the SplitsTree framework that integrates these networks. By addressing these two problems, SplitsTree is among the first programs that incorporates implicit and explicit network methods together with standard phylogenetic tree methods in a graphical user interface environment. Conclusion. In this article, we presented an extension of SplitsTree 4 that incorporates explicit phylogenetic networks. The extension provides a set of core classes to handle explicit phylogenetic networks and a visualization of these networks. © 2008 Kloepper and Huson; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."





Gabriel Cardona,
Mercè Llabrés,
Francesc Rosselló and
Gabriel Valiente. A Distance Metric for a Class of TreeSibling Phylogenetic Networks. In BIO, Vol. 24(13):14811488, 2008. Keywords: distance between networks, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, tree sibling network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btn231.
Toggle abstract
"Motivation: The presence of reticulate evolutionary events in phylogenies turn phylogenetic trees into phylogenetic networks. These events imply in particular that there may exist multiple evolutionary paths from a nonextant species to an extant one, and this multiplicity makes the comparison of phylogenetic networks much more difficult than the comparison of phylogenetic trees. In fact, all attempts to define a sound distance measure on the class of all phylogenetic networks have failed so far. Thus, the only practical solutions have been either the use of rough estimates of similarity (based on comparison of the trees embedded in the networks), or narrowing the class of phylogenetic networks to a certain class where such a distance is known and can be efficiently computed. The first approach has the problem that one may identify two networks as equivalent, when they are not; the second one has the drawback that there may not exist algorithms to reconstruct such networks from biological sequences. Results: We present in this articlea distance measure on the class of semibinary treesibling time consistent phylogenetic networks, which generalize treechild time consistent phylogenetic networks, and thus also galledtrees. The practical interest of this distance measure is 2fold: it can be computed in polynomial time by means of simple algorithms, and there also exist polynomialtime algorithms for reconstructing networks of this class from DNA sequence data. © 2008 The Author(s)."



James B. Whitfield,
Sydney A. Cameron,
Daniel H. Huson and
Mike Steel. Filtered ZClosure Supernetworks for Extracting and Visualizing Recurrent Signal from Incongruent Gene Trees. In Systematic Biology, Vol. 57(6):939947, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, split, split network, supernetwork. Note: http://www.life.uiuc.edu/scameron/pdfs/Filtered%20Zclosure%20SystBiol.pdf.



Simone Linz. Reticulation in evolution. PhD thesis, HeinrichHeineUniversity, Düsseldorf, Germany, 2008. Keywords: agreement forest, FPT, from rooted trees, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, SPR distance, statistical model. Note: http://docserv.uniduesseldorf.de/servlets/DocumentServlet?id=8505.





Tobias Kloepper. Algorithms for the Calculation and Visualisation of Phylogenetic Networks. PhD thesis, EberhardKarlsUniversität Tübingen, Germany, 2008. Keywords: from rooted trees, from sequences, from unrooted trees, galled network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, split network, visualization. Note: http://tobiaslib.ub.unituebingen.de/volltexte/2008/3336/.



Cuong Than,
Derek Ruths and
Luay Nakhleh. PhyloNet: A Software Package for Analyzing and Reconstructing Reticulate Evolutionary Relationships. In BMCB, Vol. 9(322), 2008. Keywords: Program PhyloNet, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/147121059322.
Toggle abstract
"Background: Phylogenies, i.e., the evolutionary histories of groups of taxa, play a major role in representing the interrelationships among biological entities. Many software tools for reconstructing and evaluating such phylogenies have been proposed, almost all of which assume the underlying evolutionary history to be a tree. While trees give a satisfactory firstorder approximation for many families of organisms, other families exhibit evolutionary mechanisms that cannot be represented by trees. Processes such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), hybrid speciation, and interspecific recombination, collectively referred to as reticulate evolutionary events, result in networks, rather than trees, of relationships. Various software tools have been recently developed to analyze reticulate evolutionary relationships, which include SplitsTree4, LatTrans, EEEP, HorizStory, and TREX. Results: In this paper, we report on the PhyloNet software package, which is a suite of tools for analyzing reticulate evolutionary relationships, or evolutionary networks, which are rooted, directed, acyclic graphs, leaflabeled by a set of taxa. These tools can be classified into four categories: (1) evolutionary network representation: reading/writing evolutionary networks in a newly devised compact form; (2) evolutionary network characterization: analyzing evolutionary networks in terms of three basic building blocks  trees, clusters, and tripartitions; (3) evolutionary network comparison: comparing two evolutionary networks in terms of topological dissimilarities, as well as fitness to sequence evolution under a maximum parsimony criterion; and (4) evolutionary network reconstruction: reconstructing an evolutionary network from a species tree and a set of gene trees. Conclusion: The software package, PhyloNet, offers an array of utilities to allow for efficient and accurate analysis of evolutionary networks. The software package will help significantly in analyzing large data sets, as well as in studying the performance of evolutionary network reconstruction methods. Further, the software package supports the proposed eNewick format for compact representation of evolutionary networks, a feature that allows for efficient interoperability of evolutionary network software tools. Currently, all utilities in PhyloNet are invoked on the command line. © 2008 Than et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Iyad A. Kanj,
Luay Nakhleh,
Cuong Than and
Ge Xia. Seeing the Trees and Their Branches in the Network is Hard. In TCS, Vol. 401:153164, 2008. Keywords: evaluation, from network, from rooted trees, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, tree containment. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/tcs08.pdf.



Barbara R. Holland,
Steffi Benthin,
Peter J. Lockhart,
Vincent Moulton and
Katharina Huber. Using supernetworks to distinguish hybridization from lineagesorting. In BMCEB, Vol. 8(202), 2008. Keywords: explicit network, from unrooted trees, hybridization, lineage sorting, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, supernetwork. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/147121488202.
Toggle abstract
"Background. A simple and widely used approach for detecting hybridization in phylogenies is to reconstruct gene trees from independent gene loci, and to look for gene tree incongruence. However, this approach may be confounded by factors such as poor taxonsampling and/or incomplete lineagesorting. Results. Using coalescent simulations, we investigated the potential of supernetwork methods to differentiate between gene tree incongruence arising from taxon sampling and incomplete lineagesorting as opposed to hybridization. For few hybridization events, a large number of independent loci, and wellsampled taxa across these loci, we found that it was possible to distinguish incomplete lineagesorting from hybridization using the filtered Zclosure and Qimputation supernetwork methods. Moreover, we found that the choice of supernetwork method was less important than the choice of filtering, and that countbased filtering was the most effective filtering technique. Conclusion. Filtered supernetworks provide a tool for detecting and identifying hybridization events in phylogenies, a tool that should become increasingly useful in light of current genome sequencing initiatives and the ease with which large numbers of independent gene loci can be determined using new generation sequencing technologies. © 2008 Holland et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."





Miguel Arenas,
Gabriel Valiente and
David Posada. Characterization of reticulate networks based on the coalescent with recombination. In MBE, Vol. 25(12):25172520, 2008. Keywords: coalescent, evaluation, explicit network, galled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Recodon, regular network, simulation, tree child network, tree sibling network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msn219.
Toggle abstract
"Phylogenetic networks aim to represent the evolutionary history of taxa. Within these, reticulate networks are explicitly able to accommodate evolutionary events like recombination, hybridization, or lateral gene transfer. Although several metrics exist to compare phylogenetic networks, they make several assumptions regarding the nature of the networks that are not likely to be fulfilled by the evolutionary process. In order to characterize the potential disagreement between the algorithms and the biology, we have used the coalescent with recombination to build the type of networks produced by reticulate evolution and classified them as regular, tree sibling, tree child, or galled trees. We show that, as expected, the complexity of these reticulate networks is a function of the population recombination rate. At small recombination rates, most of the networks produced are already more complex than regular or tree sibling networks, whereas with moderate and large recombination rates, no network fit into any of the standard classes. We conclude that new metrics still need to be devised in order to properly compare two phylogenetic networks that have arisen from reticulating evolutionary process. © 2008 The Authors."



Gabriel Cardona,
Francesc Rosselló and
Gabriel Valiente. Extended Newick: It is Time for a Standard Representation. In BMCB, Vol. 9:532, 2008. Keywords: evaluation, explicit network, phylogenetic network, Program Bio PhyloNetwork, Program Dendroscope, Program NetGen, Program PhyloNet, Program SplitsTree, Program TCS, visualization. Note: http://bioinfo.uib.es/media/uploaded/bmc2008enewicksub.pdf.



Miguel Arenas and
David Posada. Recodon: Coalescent simulation of coding DNA sequences with recombination, migration and demography. In BMCB, Vol. 8(458), 2008. Keywords: coalescent, generation, Program Recodon, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/147121058458.
Toggle abstract
"Background: Coalescent simulations have proven very useful in many population genetics studies. In order to arrive to meaningful conclusions, it is important that these simulations resemble the process of molecular evolution as much as possible. To date, no single coalescent program is able to simulate codon sequences sampled from populations with recombination, migration and growth. Results: We introduce a new coalescent program, called Recodon, which is able to simulate samples of coding DNA sequences under complex scenarios in which several evolutionary forces can interact simultaneously (namely, recombination, migration and demography). The basic codon model implemented is an extension to the general timereversible model of nucleotide substitution with a proportion of invariable sites and amongsite rate variation. In addition, the program implements nonreversible processes and mixtures of different codon models. Conclusion: Recodon is a flexible tool for the simulation of coding DNA sequences under realistic evolutionary models. These simulations can be used to build parameter distributions for testing evolutionary hypotheses using experimental data. Recodon is written in C, can run in parallel, and is freely available from http://darwin.uvigo.es/. © 2007 Arenas and Posada; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."







Tal Dagan,
Yael ArtzyRandrup and
William Martin. Modular networks and cumulative impact of lateral transfer in prokaryote genome evolution. In PNAS, Vol. 105:1003910044, 2008. Keywords: from sequences, from species tree, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0800679105.
Toggle abstract
"Lateral gene transfer is an important mechanism of natural variation among prokaryotes, but the significance of its quantitative contribution to genome evolution is debated. Here, we report networks that capture both vertical and lateral components of evolutionary history among 539,723 genes distributed across 181 sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Partitioning of these networks by an eigenspectrum analysis identifies community structure in prokaryotic genesharing networks, the modules of which do not correspond to a strictly hierarchical prokaryotic classification. Our results indicate that, on average, at least 81 ± 15% of the genes in each genome studied were involved in lateral gene transfer at some point in their history, even though they can be vertically inherited after acquisition, uncovering a substantial cumulative effect of lateral gene transfer on longer evolutionary time scales. © 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA."





Daniel H. Huson and
Tobias Kloepper. Beyond Galled Trees  Decomposition and Computation of Galled Networks. In RECOMB07, Vol. 4453:211225 of LNCS, springer, 2007. Keywords: FPT, from splits, from trees, galled network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9783540716815_15, errata..





Guohua Jin,
Luay Nakhleh,
Sagi Snir and
Tamir Tuller. A New Lineartime Heuristic Algorithm for Computing the Parsimony Score of Phylogenetic Networks: Theoretical Bounds and Empirical Performance. In ISBRA07, Vol. 4463:6172 of LNCS, springer, 2007. Keywords: approximation, heuristic, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Nepal. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/isbra07.pdf.











Galina Glazko,
Vladimir Makarenkov,
Jing Liu and
Arcady Mushegian. Evolutionary history of bacteriophages with doublestranded DNA genomes. In Biology Direct, Vol. 2(36), 2007. Keywords: explicit network, from sequences, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program T REX. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/17456150236.
Toggle abstract
"Background: Reconstruction of evolutionary history of bacteriophages is a difficult problem because of fast sequence drift and lack of omnipresent genes in phage genomes. Moreover, losses and recombinational exchanges of genes are so pervasive in phages that the plausibility of phylogenetic inference in phage kingdom has been questioned. Results: We compiled the profiles of presence and absence of 803 orthologous genes in 158 completely sequenced phages with doublestranded DNA genomes and used these gene content vectors to infer the evolutionary history of phages. There were 18 wellsupported clades, mostly corresponding to accepted genera, but in some cases appearing to define new taxonomic groups. Conflicts between this phylogeny and trees constructed from sequence alignments of phage proteins were exploited to infer 294 specific acts of intergenome gene transfer. Conclusion: A notoriously reticulate evolutionary history of fastevolving phages can be reconstructed in considerable detail by quantitative comparative genomics. © 2007 Glazko et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Cuong Than,
Derek Ruths,
Hideki Innan and
Luay Nakhleh. Confounding Factors in HGT Detection: Statistical Error, Coalescent Effects, and Multiple Solutions. In JCB, Vol. 14(4):517535, 2007. Keywords: enumeration, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program LatTrans, Program PhyloNet. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/recombcg06jcb.pdf.



Hadas Birin,
Zohar GalOr,
Isaac Elias and
Tamir Tuller. Inferring Models of Rearrangements, Recombinations, and Horizontal Transfers by the Minimum Evolution Criterion. In WABI07, Vol. 4645:111123 of LNCS, springer, 2007. Keywords: explicit network, from sequences, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://safrabio.cs.tau.ac.il/download/Papers/Birin_et_al.pdf.







Jesper Jansson and
WingKin Sung. Inferring a level1 phylogenetic network from a dense set of rooted triplets. In TCS, Vol. 363(1):6068, 2006. 1 comment Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://www.df.lth.se/~jj/Publications/ipnrt8_TCS2006.pdf.
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"We consider the following problem: Given a set T of rooted triplets with leaf set L, determine whether there exists a phylogenetic network consistent with T, and if so, construct one. We show that if no restrictions are placed on the hybrid nodes in the solution, the problem is trivially solved in polynomial time by a simple sorting networkbased construction. For the more interesting (and biologically more motivated) case where the solution is required to be a level1 phylogenetic network, we present an algorithm solving the problem in O ( T 2) time when T is dense, i.e., when T contains at least one rooted triplet for each cardinality three subset of L. We also give an O ( T 5 / 3)time algorithm for finding the set of all phylogenetic networks having a single hybrid node attached to exactly one leaf (and having no other hybrid nodes) that are consistent with a given dense set of rooted triplets. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved."



Vladimir Makarenkov,
Dmytro Kevorkov and
Pierre Legendre. Phylogenetic Network Construction Approaches. In Applied Mycology and Biotechnology, Vol. 6:6197, 2006. Keywords: from distances, hybridization, lateral gene transfer, median network, NeighborNet, netting, Program Arlequin, Program Network, Program Pyramids, Program Reticlad, Program SplitsTree, Program T REX, Program TCS, Program WeakHierarchies, pyramid, reticulogram, split, split decomposition, split network, survey, weak hierarchy. Note: http://www.labunix.uqam.ca/~makarenv/makarenv/MKL_article.pdf.



Cuong Than,
Derek Ruths,
Hideki Innan and
Luay Nakhleh. Identifiability Issues in PhylogenyBased Detection of Horizontal Gene Transfer. In Proceedings of the Fourth RECOMB Comparative Genomics Satellite Workshop (RECOMBCG'06), Vol. 4205:215229 of LNCS, springer, 2006. 1 comment Keywords: enumeration, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program LatTrans, Program PhyloNet. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/recombcg06final.pdf.





Guillaume Bourque and
Louxin Zhang. Models and Methods in Comparative Genomics. In
ChauWen Tseng editor, Advances in Computers, Special Volume: Computational Biology, Vol. 68, Elsevier, 2006. Keywords: from distances, from rooted trees, from sequences, galled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, survey. Note: http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/~matzlx/papers/CompGen_ZLX.pdf.







Trinh N. D. Huynh,
Jesper Jansson,
Nguyen Bao Nguyen and
WingKin Sung. Constructing a Smallest Refining Galled Phylogenetic Network. In RECOMB05, Vol. 3500:265280 of LNCS, springer, 2005. Keywords: from rooted trees, galled tree, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program SPNet, reconstruction. Note: http://www.df.lth.se/~jj/Publications/refining_gn3_RECOMB2005.pdf.



Daniel H. Huson,
Tobias Kloepper,
Peter J. Lockhart and
Mike Steel. Reconstruction of Reticulate Networks from Gene Trees. In RECOMB05, Vol. 3500:233249 of LNCS, springer, 2005. Keywords: from rooted trees, from splits, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, split, split network, visualization. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11415770_18.



Daniel H. Huson and
Tobias Kloepper. Computing recombination networks from binary sequences. In ECCB05, Vol. 21(suppl. 2):ii159ii165 of BIO, 2005. Keywords: from sequences, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, recombination. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bti1126.
Toggle abstract
"Motivation:Phylogenetic networks are becoming an important tool in molecular evolution, as the evolutionary role of reticulate events, such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer and recombination, is becoming more evident, and as the available data is dramatically increasing in quantity and quality. Results: This paper addresses the problem of computing a most parsimonious recombination network for an alignment of binary sequences that are assumed to have arisen under the 'infinite sites' model of evolution with recombinations. Using the concept of a splits network as the underlying datastructure, this paper shows how a recent method designed for the computation of hybridization networks can be extended to also compute recombination networks. A robust implementation of the approach is provided and is illustrated using a number of real biological datasets. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved."





Jesper Jansson,
Nguyen Bao Nguyen and
WingKin Sung. Algorithms for Combining Rooted Triplets into a Galled Phylogenetic Network. In SODA05, Pages 349358, 2005. 1 comment Keywords: approximation, explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1070481.



Rune Lyngsø,
Yun S. Song and
Jotun Hein. Minimum Recombination Histories by Branch and Bound. In WABI05, Vol. 3692:239250 of LNCS, springer, 2005. Keywords: ARG, branch and bound, from sequences, minimum number, Program Beagle, recombination, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.cs.ucdavis.edu/~yssong/Pub/WABI05239.pdf.



Luay Nakhleh and
LiSan Wang. Phylogenetic Networks, Trees, and Clusters. In IWBRA05, Vol. 3515:919926 of LNCS, springer, 2005. Keywords: cluster containment, evaluation, from clusters, from network, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, tree child network, tree containment. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/NakhlehWang.pdf.



Luay Nakhleh and
LiSan Wang. Phylogenetic Networks: Properties and Relationship to Trees and Clusters. In TCSB2, Vol. 3680:8299 of LNCS, springer, 2005. Keywords: cluster containment, evaluation, from clusters, from network, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, tree child network, tree containment. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/LNCS_TCSB05.pdf.









Yun S. Song,
Yufeng Wu and
Dan Gusfield. Efficient computation of close lower and upper bounds on the minimum number of recombinations in biological sequence evolution. In ISMB05, Vol. 21:i413i422 of BIO, 2005. Keywords: minimum number, Program HapBound, Program SHRUB, recombination. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bti1033.
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"Motivation: We are interested in studying the evolution of DNA single nucleotide polymorphism sequences which have undergone (meiotic) recombination. For a given set of sequences, computing the minimum number of recombinations needed to explain the sequences (with one mutation per site) is a standard question of interest, but it has been shown to be NPhard, and previous algorithms that compute it exactly work either only on very small datasets or on problems with special structure. Results: In this paper, we present efficient, practical methods for computing both upper and lower bounds on the minimum number of needed recombinations, and for constructing evolutionary histories that explain the input sequences. We study in detail the efficiency and accuracy of these algorithms on both simulated and real data sets. The algorithms produce very close upper and lower bounds, which match exactly in a surprisingly wide range of data. Thus, with the use of new, very effective lower bounding methods and an efficient algorithm for computing upper bounds, this approach allows the efficient, exact computation of the minimum number of needed recombinations, with high frequency in a large range of data. When upper and lower bounds match, evolutionary histories found by our algorithm correspond to the most parsimonious histories. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved."



Bhaskar DasGupta,
Sergio Ferrarini,
Uthra Gopalakrishnan and
Nisha Raj Paryani. Inapproximability results for the lateral gene transfer problem. In Proceedings of the Ninth Italian Conference on Theoretical Computer Science (ICTCS'05), Pages 182195, springer, 2005. Keywords: approximation, from rooted trees, from species tree, inapproximability, lateral gene transfer, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny. Note: http://www.cs.uic.edu/~dasgupta/resume/publ/papers/ictcsfinal.pdf.



Insa Cassens,
Patrick Mardulyn and
Michel C. Milinkovitch. Evaluating Intraspecific Network Construction Methods Using Simulated Sequence Data: Do Existing Algorithms Outperform the Global Maximum Parsimony Approach? In Systematic Biology, Vol. 54(3):363372, 2005. Keywords: abstract network, evaluation, from unrooted trees, haplotype network, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Arlequin, Program CombineTrees, Program Network, Program TCS, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.lanevol.org/LANE/publications_files/Cassens_etal_SystBio_2005.pdf.



David Bryant. Extending tree models to splits networks. In
Lior Pachter and
Bernd Sturmfels editors, Algebraic Statistics for Computational Biology, Pages 322334, Cambridge University Press, 2005. Keywords: abstract network, from splits, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, split, split network, statistical model. Note: http://www.math.auckland.ac.nz/~bryant/Papers/05ascbChapter.pdf.





Charles Choy,
Jesper Jansson,
Kunihiko Sadakane and
WingKin Sung. Computing the maximum agreement of phylogenetic networks. In Proceedings of Computing: the Tenth Australasian Theory Symposium (CATS'04), Vol. 91:134147 of Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 2004. Keywords: dynamic programming, FPT, level k phylogenetic network, MASN, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny. Note: http://www.df.lth.se/~jj/Publications/masn6_CATS2004.pdf.
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"We introduce the maximum agreement phylogenetic subnetwork problem (MASN) of finding a branching structure shared by a set of phylogenetic networks. We prove that the problem is NPhard even if restricted to three phylogenetic networks and give an O(n2)time algorithm for the special case of two level1 phylogenetic networks, where n is the number of leaves in the input networks and where N is called a levelf phylogenetic network if every biconnected component in the underlying undirected graph contains at most f nodes having indegree 2 in N. Our algorithm can be extended to yield a polynomialtime algorithm for two levelf phylogenetic networks N 1,N2 for any f which is upperbounded by a constant; more precisely, its running time is O(V(N1)·V(N 2)·4f), where V(Ni) denotes the set of nodes of Ni. © 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V."



Luay Nakhleh,
Tandy Warnow and
C. Randal Linder. Reconstructing reticulate evolution in species  theory and practice. In RECOMB04, Pages 337346, 2004. Keywords: from rooted trees, galled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program SPNet, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/144nakhleh.pdf.



Mike Hallett,
Jens Lagergren and
Ali Tofigh. Simultaneous Identification of Duplications and Lateral Transfers. In RECOMB04, Pages 347356, 2004. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, loss, NP complete, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://www.nada.kth.se/~jensl/p164hallett.pdf.



Pawel Górecki. Reconciliation problems for duplication, loss and horizontal gene transfer. In RECOMB04, Pages 316325, 2004. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, loss, NP complete, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://ai.stanford.edu/~serafim/CS374_2004/Papers/Gorecki_Reconciliation.pdf.







Luay Nakhleh,
Jerry Sun,
Tandy Warnow,
C. Randal Linder,
Bernard M. E. Moret and
Anna Tholse. Towards the Development of Computational Tools for Evaluating Phylogenetic Network Reconstruction Methods. In PSB03, 2003. Keywords: distance between networks, evaluation, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, tripartition distance. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/psb03.pdf.







David Bryant and
Vincent Moulton. NeighborNet: An Agglomerative Method for the Construction of Planar Phylogenetic Networks. In WABI02, Vol. 2452:375391 of LNCS, springer, 2002. Keywords: abstract network, circular split system, from distances, NeighborNet, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3540457844_28.







David Posada and
Keith A. Crandall. Intraspecific gene genealogies: trees grafting into networks. In TEE, Vol. 16(1):3745, 2001. Keywords: likelihood, median network, netting, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Arlequin, Program SplitsTree, Program T REX, Program TCS, pyramid, reticulogram, split decomposition, statistical parsimony, survey. Note: http://darwin.uvigo.es/download/papers/09.networks01.pdf.



Lusheng Wang,
Kaizhong Zhang and
Louxin Zhang. Perfect phylogenetic networks with recombination. In SAC01, Pages 4650, 2001. Keywords: from sequences, galled tree, NP complete, perfect, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, recombination, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/372202.372271.



Bin Ma,
Lusheng Wang and
Ming Li. Fixed topology alignment with recombination. In DAM, Vol. 104:281300, 2000. Keywords: approximation, explicit network, from network, from sequences, galled tree, inapproximability, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, recombination. Note: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.40.7759.
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"Background: Reticulate events play an important role in determining evolutionary relationships. The problem of computing the minimum number of such events to explain discordance between two phylogenetic trees is a hard computational problem. Even for binary trees, exact solvers struggle to solve instances with reticulation number larger than 4050.Results: Here we present CycleKiller and NonbinaryCycleKiller, the first methods to produce solutions verifiably close to optimality for instances with hundreds or even thousands of reticulations.Conclusions: Using simulations, we demonstrate that these algorithms run quickly for large and difficult instances, producing solutions that are very close to optimality. As a spinoff from our simulations we also present TerminusEst, which is the fastest exact method currently available that can handle nonbinary trees: this is used to measure the accuracy of the NonbinaryCycleKiller algorithm. All three methods are based on extensions of previous theoretical work (SIDMA 26(4):16351656, TCBB 10(1):1825, SIDMA 28(1):4966) and are publicly available. We also apply our methods to real data. © 2014 van Iersel et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Vincent Berry and
David Bryant. Faster reliable phylogenetic analysis. In RECOMB99, Pages 5968, 1999. Keywords: abstract network, from quartets, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, split network, weakly compatible. Note: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.95.9151.



Roderic D.M. Page and
Michael A. Charleston. Trees within trees: phylogeny and historical associations. In TEE, Vol. 13(9):356359, 1998. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, survey. Note: http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/rod/papers/tree.pdf.





HansJürgen Bandelt. Phylogenetic Networks. In Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Hamburg, Vol. 34:5171, 1994.







Ingo Althöfer. On optimal realizations of finite metric spaces by graphs. In Discrete and Computational Geometry, Vol. 3(1):103122, 1986. Keywords: NP complete, optimal realization, realization. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02187901.
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"Graph realizations of finite metric spaces have widespread applications, for example, in biology, economics, and information theory. The main results of this paper are: 1. Finding optimal realizations of integral metrics (which means all distances are integral) is NPcomplete. 2. There exist metric spaces with a continuum of optimal realizations. Furthermore, two conditions necessary for a weighted graph to be an optimal realization are given and an extremal problem arising in connection with the realization problem is investigated. © 1988 SpringerVerlag New York Inc."










