





Sajad Mirzaei and
Yufeng Wu. Fast Construction of Near Parsimonious Hybridization Networks for Multiple Phylogenetic Trees. In TCBB, Vol. 13(3):565570, 2016. Keywords: bound, explicit network, from rooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PIRN, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~ywu/Papers/PIRNspreprint.pdf.






Yun Yu and
Luay Nakhleh. A DistanceBased Method for Inferring Phylogenetic Networks in the Presence of Incomplete Lineage Sorting. In ISBRA15, Vol. 9096:378389 of LNCS, springer, 2015. Keywords: bootstrap, explicit network, from distances, heuristic, incomplete lineage sorting, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/sites/bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/files/YuNakhlehISBRA15.pdf.






Hadi Poormohammadi,
Changiz Eslahchi and
Ruzbeh Tusserkani. TripNet: A Method for Constructing Rooted Phylogenetic Networks from Rooted Triplets. In PLoS ONE, Vol. 9(9):e106531, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, heuristic, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program TripNet, reconstruction, software. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.3722.
Toggle abstract
"The problem of constructing an optimal rooted phylogenetic network from an arbitrary set of rooted triplets is an NPhard problem. In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm called TripNet, which tries to construct a rooted phylogenetic network with the minimum number of reticulation nodes from an arbitrary set of rooted triplets. Despite of current methods that work for dense set of rooted triplets, a key innovation is the applicability of TripNet to nondense set of rooted triplets. We prove some theorems to clarify the performance of the algorithm. To demonstrate the efficiency of TripNet, we compared TripNet with SIMPLISTIC. It is the only available software which has the ability to return some rooted phylogenetic network consistent with a given dense set of rooted triplets. But the results show that for complex networks with high levels, the SIMPLISTIC running time increased abruptly. However in all cases TripNet outputs an appropriate rooted phylogenetic network in an acceptable time. Also we tetsed TripNet on the Yeast data. The results show that Both TripNet and optimal networks have the same clustering and TripNet produced a level3 network which contains only one more reticulation node than the optimal network."



Anthony Labarre and
Sicco Verwer. Merging partially labelled trees: hardness and a declarative programming solution. In TCBB, Vol. 11(2):389397, 2014. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: https://halupecupem.archivesouvertes.fr/hal00855669.
Toggle abstract
"Intraspecific studies often make use of haplotype networks instead of gene genealogies to represent the evolution of a set of genes. Cassens et al. proposed one such network reconstruction method, based on the global maximum parsimony principle, which was later recast by the first author of the present work as the problem of finding a minimum common supergraph of a set of t partially labelled trees. Although algorithms have been proposed for solving that problem on two graphs, the complexity of the general problem on trees remains unknown. In this paper, we show that the corresponding decision problem is NPcomplete for t=3. We then propose a declarative programming approach to solving the problem to optimality in practice, as well as a heuristic approach, both based on the idpsystem, and assess the performance of both methods on randomly generated data. © 20042012 IEEE."



Juan Wang. A new algorithm to construct phylogenetic networks from trees. In Genetics and Molecular Research, Vol. 13(1):14561464, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from clusters, heuristic, phylogenetic network, Program LNetwork, Program QuickCass, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.4238/2014.March.6.4.
Toggle abstract
"Developing appropriate methods for constructing phylogenetic networks from tree sets is an important problem, and much research is currently being undertaken in this area. BIMLR is an algorithm that constructs phylogenetic networks from tree sets. The algorithm can construct a much simpler network than other available methods. Here, we introduce an improved version of the BIMLR algorithm, QuickCass. QuickCass changes the selection strategy of the labels of leaves below the reticulate nodes, i.e., the nodes with an indegree of at least 2 in BIMLR. We show that QuickCass can construct simpler phylogenetic networks than BIMLR. Furthermore, we show that QuickCass is a polynomialtime algorithm when the output network that is constructed by QuickCass is binary. © FUNPECRP."



Matthieu Willems,
Nadia Tahiri and
Vladimir Makarenkov. A new efficient algorithm for inferring explicit hybridization networks following the NeighborJoining principle. In JBCB, Vol. 12(5), 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from distances, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction.
Toggle abstract
"Several algorithms and software have been developed for inferring phylogenetic trees. However, there exist some biological phenomena such as hybridization, recombination, or horizontal gene transfer which cannot be represented by a tree topology. We need to use phylogenetic networks to adequately represent these important evolutionary mechanisms. In this article, we present a new efficient heuristic algorithm for inferring hybridization networks from evolutionary distance matrices between species. The famous NeighborJoining concept and the leastsquares criterion are used for building networks. At each step of the algorithm, before joining two given nodes, we check if a hybridization event could be related to one of them or to both of them. The proposed algorithm finds the exact tree solution when the considered distance matrix is a tree metric (i.e. it is representable by a unique phylogenetic tree). It also provides very good hybrids recovery rates for large trees (with 32 and 64 leaves in our simulations) for both distance and sequence types of data. The results yielded by the new algorithm for real and simulated datasets are illustrated and discussed in detail. © Imperial College Press."






Stefan Grünewald,
Andreas Spillner,
Sarah Bastkowski,
Anja Bögershausen and
Vincent Moulton. SuperQ: Computing Supernetworks from Quartets. In TCBB, Vol. 10(1):151160, 2013. Keywords: abstract network, circular split system, from quartets, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program QNet, Program SplitsTree, Program SuperQ, software, split network.
Toggle abstract
"Supertrees are a commonly used tool in phylogenetics to summarize collections of partial phylogenetic trees. As a generalization of supertrees, phylogenetic supernetworks allow, in addition, the visual representation of conflict between the trees that is not possible to observe with a single tree. Here, we introduce SuperQ, a new method for constructing such supernetworks (SuperQ is freely available at >www.uea.ac.uk/computing/superq.). It works by first breaking the input trees into quartet trees, and then stitching these together to form a special kind of phylogenetic network, called a split network. This stitching process is performed using an adaptation of the QNet method for split network reconstruction employing a novel approach to use the branch lengths from the input trees to estimate the branch lengths in the resulting network. Compared with previous supernetwork methods, SuperQ has the advantage of producing a planar network. We compare the performance of SuperQ to the Zclosure and Qimputation supernetwork methods, and also present an analysis of some published data sets as an illustration of its applicability. © 20042012 IEEE."



ThiHau Nguyen,
Vincent Ranwez,
Stéphanie Pointet,
AnneMuriel Chifolleau Arigon,
JeanPhilippe Doyon and
Vincent Berry. Reconciliation and local gene tree rearrangement can be of mutual profit. In ALMOB, Vol. 8(12), 2013. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Mowgli, Program MowgliNNI, Program Prunier, reconstruction, software.
Toggle abstract
"Background: Reconciliation methods compare gene trees and species trees to recover evolutionary events such as duplications, transfers and losses explaining the history and composition of genomes. It is wellknown that gene trees inferred from molecular sequences can be partly erroneous due to incorrect sequence alignments as well as phylogenetic reconstruction artifacts such as long branch attraction. In practice, this leads reconciliation methods to overestimate the number of evolutionary events. Several methods have been proposed to circumvent this problem, by collapsing the unsupported edges and then resolving the obtained multifurcating nodes, or by directly rearranging the binary gene trees. Yet these methods have been defined for models of evolution accounting only for duplications and losses, i.e. can not be applied to handle prokaryotic gene families.Results: We propose a reconciliation method accounting for gene duplications, losses and horizontal transfers, that specifically takes into account the uncertainties in gene trees by rearranging their weakly supported edges. Rearrangements are performed on edges having a low confidence value, and are accepted whenever they improve the reconciliation cost. We prove useful properties on the dynamic programming matrix used to compute reconciliations, which allows to speedup the tree space exploration when rearrangements are generated by Nearest Neighbor Interchanges (NNI) edit operations. Experiments on synthetic data show that gene trees modified by such NNI rearrangements are closer to the correct simulated trees and lead to better event predictions on average. Experiments on real data demonstrate that the proposed method leads to a decrease in the reconciliation cost and the number of inferred events. Finally on a dataset of 30 k gene families, this reconciliation method shows a ranking of prokaryotic phyla by transfer rates identical to that proposed by a different approach dedicated to transfer detection [BMCBIOINF 11:324, 2010, PNAS 109(13):49624967, 2012].Conclusions: Prokaryotic gene trees can now be reconciled with their species phylogeny while accounting for the uncertainty of the gene tree. More accurate and more precise reconciliations are obtained with respect to previous parsimony algorithms not accounting for such uncertainties [LNCS 6398:93108, 2010, BIOINF 28(12): i283i291, 2012].A software implementing the method is freely available at http://www.atgcmontpellier.fr/Mowgli/. © 2013 Nguyen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



ThiHau Nguyen. Réconciliations: corriger des arbres de gènes et inférer la fiabilité des événements évolutifs. PhD thesis, Université Montpellier 2, France, 2013. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Mowgli, Program MowgliNNI, reconstruction.








Changiz Eslahchi,
Reza Hassanzadeh,
Ehsan Mottaghi,
Mahnaz Habibi,
Hamid Pezeshk and
Mehdi Sadeghi. Constructing circular phylogenetic networks from weighted quartets using simulated annealing. In MBIO, Vol. 235(2):123127, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from quartets, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SAQNet, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, simulated annealing, software, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2011.11.003.
Toggle abstract
"In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm based on the simulated annealing, SAQNet, as a method for constructing phylogenetic networks from weighted quartets. Similar to QNet algorithm, SAQNet constructs a collection of circular weighted splits of the taxa set. This collection is represented by a split network. In order to show that SAQNet performs better than QNet, we apply these algorithm to both the simulated and actual data sets containing salmonella, Bees, Primates and Rubber data sets. Then we draw phylogenetic networks corresponding to outputs of these algorithms using SplitsTree4 and compare the results. We find that SAQNet produces a better circular ordering and phylogenetic networks than QNet in most cases. SAQNet has been implemented in Matlab and is available for download at http://bioinf.cs.ipm.ac.ir/softwares/saq.net. © 2011 Elsevier Inc."



Hyun Jung Park and
Luay Nakhleh. MURPAR: A fast heuristic for inferring parsimonious phylogenetic networks from multiple gene trees. In ISBRA12, Vol. 7292:213224 of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, software.
Toggle abstract
"Phylogenetic networks provide a graphical representation of evolutionary histories that involve nontreelike evolutionary events, such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). One approach for inferring phylogenetic networks is based on reconciling gene trees, assuming all incongruence among the gene trees is due to HGT. Several mathematical results and algorithms, both exact and heuristic, have been introduced to construct and analyze phylogenetic networks. Here, we address the computational problem of inferring phylogenetic networks with minimum reticulations from a collection of gene trees. As this problem is known to be NPhard even for a pair of gene trees, the problem at hand is very hard. In this paper, we present an efficient heuristic, MURPAR, for inferring a phylogenetic network from a collection of gene trees by using pairwise reconciliations of trees in the collection. Given the development of efficient and accurate methods for pairwise gene tree reconciliations, MURPAR inherits this efficiency and accuracy. Further, the method includes a formulation for combining pairwise reconciliations that is naturally amenable to an efficient integer linear programming (ILP) solution. We show that MURPAR produces more accurate results than other methods and is at least as fast, when run on synthetic and biological data. We believe that our method is especially important for rapidly obtaining estimates of genomescale evolutionary histories that can be further refined by more detailed and computeintensive methods. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."



Reza Hassanzadeh,
Changiz Eslahchi and
WingKin Sung. Constructing phylogenetic supernetworks based on simulated annealing. In MPE, Vol. 63(3):738744, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SNSA, reconstruction, simulated annealing, software, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.02.009.
Toggle abstract
Different partial phylogenetic trees can be derived from different sources of evidence and different methods. One important problem is to summarize these partial phylogenetic trees using a supernetwork. We propose a novel simulated annealing based method called SNSA which uses an optimization function to produce a simple network that still retains a great deal of phylogenetic information. We report the performance of this new method on real and simulated datasets. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.



Lavanya Kannan and
Ward C Wheeler. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic Networks. In ALMOB, Vol. 7:9, 2012. Keywords: dynamic programming, explicit network, from sequences, heuristic, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748718879.
Toggle abstract
"Background: Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a characterbased approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past.Results: In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain wellknown algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores.Conclusion: The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are common to all the branching patterns introduced by the reticulate vertices. Thus the score contains an inbuilt cost for the number of reticulate vertices in the network, and would provide a criterion that is comparable among all networks. Although the problem of finding the parsimony score on the network is believed to be computationally hard to solve, heuristics such as the ones described here would be beneficial in our efforts to find a most parsimonious network. © 2012 Kannan and Wheeler; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Hyun Jung Park and
Luay Nakhleh. Inference of reticulate evolutionary histories by maximum likelihood:
The performance of information criteria. In RECOMBCG'12, Vol. 13(suppl 19):S12 of BMCB, 2012. Keywords: AIC, BIC, explicit network, heuristic, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, statistical model. Note: http://www.biomedcentral.com/14712105/13/S19/S12.





ThiHau Nguyen,
JeanPhilippe Doyon,
Stéphanie Pointet,
AnneMuriel Chifolleau Arigon,
Vincent Ranwez and
Vincent Berry. Accounting for Gene Tree Uncertainties Improves Gene Trees and Reconciliation Inference. In WABI12, Vol. 7534:123134 of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: duplication, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Mowgli, reconstruction. Note: http://hal.archivesouvertes.fr/hal00718347/en/.
Toggle abstract
"We propose a reconciliation heuristic accounting for gene duplications, losses and horizontal transfers that specifically takes into account the uncertainties in the gene tree. Rearrangements are tried for gene tree edges that are weakly supported, and are accepted whenever they improve the reconciliation cost. We prove useful properties on the dynamic programming matrix used to compute reconciliations, which allows to speedup the tree space exploration when rearrangements are generated by Nearest Neighbor Interchanges (NNI) edit operations. Experimental results on simulated and real data confirm that running times are greatly reduced when considering the abovementioned optimization in comparison to the naïve rearrangement procedure. Results also show that gene trees modified by such NNI rearrangements are closer to the correct (simulated) trees and lead to more correct event predictions on average. The program is available at http://www.atgcmontpellier.fr/ Mowgli/. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."



Joseph K. Pickrell and
Jonathan K. Pritchard. Inference of Population Splits and Mixtures from GenomeWide Allele Frequency Data. In PLoS Genetics, Vol. 8(11):e1002967, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, heuristic, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, population genetics, Program TreeMix. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002967.
Toggle abstract
"Many aspects of the historical relationships between populations in a species are reflected in genetic data. Inferring these relationships from genetic data, however, remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a statistical model for inferring the patterns of population splits and mixtures in multiple populations. In our model, the sampled populations in a species are related to their common ancestor through a graph of ancestral populations. Using genomewide allele frequency data and a Gaussian approximation to genetic drift, we infer the structure of this graph. We applied this method to a set of 55 human populations and a set of 82 dog breeds and wild canids. In both species, we show that a simple bifurcating tree does not fully describe the data; in contrast, we infer many migration events. While some of the migration events that we find have been detected previously, many have not. For example, in the human data, we infer that Cambodians trace approximately 16% of their ancestry to a population ancestral to other extant East Asian populations. In the dog data, we infer that both the boxer and basenji trace a considerable fraction of their ancestry (9% and 25%, respectively) to wolves subsequent to domestication and that East Asian toy breeds (the Shih Tzu and the Pekingese) result from admixture between modern toy breeds and "ancient" Asian breeds. Software implementing the model described here, called TreeMix, is available at http://treemix.googlecode.com. © 2012 Pickrell, Pritchard."








Katharina Huber,
Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk and
Radoslaw Suchecki. A Practical Algorithm for Reconstructing Level1 Phylogenetic Networks. In TCBB, Vol. 8(3):607620, 2011. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, generation, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program LEV1ATHAN, Program Lev1Generator, reconstruction, software. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0910.4067.
Toggle abstract
"Recently, much attention has been devoted to the construction of phylogenetic networks which generalize phylogenetic trees in order to accommodate complex evolutionary processes. Here, we present an efficient, practical algorithm for reconstructing level1 phylogenetic networksa type of network slightly more general than a phylogenetic treefrom triplets. Our algorithm has been made publicly available as the program Lev1athan. It combines ideas from several known theoretical algorithms for phylogenetic tree and network reconstruction with two novel subroutines. Namely, an exponentialtime exact and a greedy algorithm both of which are of independent theoretical interest. Most importantly, Lev1athan runs in polynomial time and always constructs a level1 network. If the data are consistent with a phylogenetic tree, then the algorithm constructs such a tree. Moreover, if the input triplet set is dense and, in addition, is fully consistent with some level1 network, it will find such a network. The potential of Lev1athan is explored by means of an extensive simulation study and a biological data set. One of our conclusions is that Lev1athan is able to construct networks consistent with a high percentage of input triplets, even when these input triplets are affected by a low to moderate level of noise. © 2011 IEEE."





Celine Scornavacca,
Franziska Zickmann and
Daniel H. Huson. Tanglegrams for Rooted Phylogenetic Trees and Networks. In ISMB11, Vol. 27(13):i248i256 of BIO, 2011. Keywords: from network, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Dendroscope, tanglegram, visualization. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr210.
Toggle abstract
"Motivation: In systematic biology, one is often faced with the task of comparing different phylogenetic trees, in particular in multigene analysis or cospeciation studies. One approach is to use a tanglegram in which two rooted phylogenetic trees are drawn opposite each other, using auxiliary lines to connect matching taxa. There is an increasing interest in using rooted phylogenetic networks to represent evolutionary history, so as to explicitly represent reticulate events, such as horizontal gene transfer, hybridization or reassortment. Thus, the question arises how to define and compute a tanglegram for such networks. Results: In this article, we present the first formal definition of a tanglegram for rooted phylogenetic networks and present a heuristic approach for computing one, called the NNtanglegram method. We compare the performance of our method with existing tree tanglegram algorithms and also show a typical application to real biological datasets. For maximum usability, the algorithm does not require that the trees or networks are bifurcating or bicombining, or that they are on identical taxon sets. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press."



Changiz Eslahchi and
Reza Hassanzadeh. New Algorithm for Constructing Supernetworks from Partial Trees. In MCCMB11, Pages 106107, 2011. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SNSA, reconstruction, simulated annealing, split network. Note: http://mccmb.belozersky.msu.ru/2011/mccmb11.pdf#page=106.






Sophie Abby,
Eric Tannier,
Manolo Gouy and
Vincent Daubin. Detecting lateral gene transfers by statistical reconciliation of phylogenetic forests. In BMCB, Vol. 11:324, 2010. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program EEEP, Program PhyloNet, Program Prunier, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.biomedcentral.com/14712105/11/324.
Toggle abstract
"Background: To understand the evolutionary role of Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT), accurate methods are needed to identify transferred genes and infer their timing of acquisition. Phylogenetic methods are particularly promising for this purpose, but the reconciliation of a gene tree with a reference (species) tree is computationally hard. In addition, the application of these methods to real data raises the problem of sorting out real and artifactual phylogenetic conflict.Results: We present Prunier, a new method for phylogenetic detection of LGT based on the search for a maximum statistical agreement forest (MSAF) between a gene tree and a reference tree. The program is flexible as it can use any definition of "agreement" among trees. We evaluate the performance of Prunier and two other programs (EEEP and RIATAHGT) for their ability to detect transferred genes in realistic simulations where gene trees are reconstructed from sequences. Prunier proposes a single scenario that compares to the other methods in terms of sensitivity, but shows higher specificity. We show that LGT scenarios carry a strong signal about the position of the root of the species tree and could be used to identify the direction of evolutionary time on the species tree. We use Prunier on a biological dataset of 23 universal proteins and discuss their suitability for inferring the tree of life.Conclusions: The ability of Prunier to take into account branch support in the process of reconciliation allows a gain in complexity, in comparison to EEEP, and in accuracy in comparison to RIATAHGT. Prunier's greedy algorithm proposes a single scenario of LGT for a gene family, but its quality always compares to the best solutions provided by the other algorithms. When the root position is uncertain in the species tree, Prunier is able to infer a scenario per root at a limited additional computational cost and can easily run on large datasets.Prunier is implemented in C++, using the Bio++ library and the phylogeny program Treefinder. It is available at: http://pbil.univlyon1.fr/software/prunier. © 2010 Abby et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."





Changiz Eslahchi,
Mahnaz Habibi,
Reza Hassanzadeh and
Ehsan Mottaghi. MCNet: a method for the construction of phylogenetic networks based on the MonteCarlo method. In BMCEB, Vol. 10:254, 2010. Keywords: abstract network, circular split system, from distances, heuristic, phylogenetic network, Program MCNet, Program SplitsTree, software, split, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471214810254.
Toggle abstract
"Background. A phylogenetic network is a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allows the representation of conflicting signals or alternative evolutionary histories in a single diagram. There are several methods for constructing these networks. Some of these methods are based on distances among taxa. In practice, the methods which are based on distance perform faster in comparison with other methods. The NeighborNet (NNet) is a distancebased method. The NNet produces a circular ordering from a distance matrix, then constructs a collection of weighted splits using circular ordering. The SplitsTree which is a program using these weighted splits makes a phylogenetic network. In general, finding an optimal circular ordering is an NPhard problem. The NNet is a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal circular ordering which is based on neighborjoining algorithm. Results. In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm to find an optimal circular ordering based on the MonteCarlo method, called MCNet algorithm. In order to show that MCNet performs better than NNet, we apply both algorithms on different data sets. Then we draw phylogenetic networks corresponding to outputs of these algorithms using SplitsTree and compare the results. Conclusions. We find that the circular ordering produced by the MCNet is closer to optimal circular ordering than the NNet. Furthermore, the networks corresponding to outputs of MCNet made by SplitsTree are simpler than NNet. © 2010 Eslahchi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."










Ran LibeskindHadas and
Michael A. Charleston. On the Computational Complexity of the Reticulate Cophylogeny Reconstruction Problem. In JCB, Vol. 16(1):105117, 2009. Keywords: cophylogeny, heuristic, NP complete, parsimony, phylogenetic network, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2008.0084.
Toggle abstract
"The cophylogeny reconstruction problem is that of finding minimal cost explanations of differences between evolutionary histories of ecologically linked groups of biological organisms. We present a proof that shows that the general problem of reconciling evolutionary histories is NPcomplete and provide a sharp boundary where this intractability begins. We also show that a related problem, that of finding Pareto optimal solutions, is NPhard. As a byproduct of our results, we give a framework by which metaheuristics can be applied to find good solutions to this problem. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2009."






Philippe Gambette and
Daniel H. Huson. Improved Layout of Phylogenetic Networks. In TCBB, Vol. 5(3):472479, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, software, split network, visualization. Note: http://hallirmm.ccsd.cnrs.fr/lirmm00309694/en/.
Toggle abstract
"Split networks are increasingly being used in phylogenetic analysis. Usually, a simple equalangle algorithm is used to draw such networks, producing layouts that leave much room for improvement. Addressing the problem of producing better layouts of split networks, this paper presents an algorithm for maximizing the area covered by the network, describes an extension of the equaldaylight algorithm to networks, looks into using a spring embedder, and discusses how to construct rooted split networks. © 2008 IEEE."



Supriya Munshaw and
Thomas B. Kepler. An InformationTheoretic Method for the Treatment of Plural Ancestry in Phylogenetics. In MBE, Vol. 25(6):11991208, 2008. Keywords: explicit network, from sequences, heuristic, phylogenetic network, reconstruction, simulated annealing, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msn066.
Toggle abstract
"In the presence of recombination and gene conversion, a given genomic segment may inherit information from 2 distinct immediate ancestors. The importance of this type of molecular inheritance has become increasingly clear over the years, and the potential for erroneous inference when it is not accounted for in the statistical model is well documented. Yet, the inclusion of plural ancestry (PA) in phylogenetic analysis is still not routine. This omission is due to the greater difficulty of phylogenetic inference on general acyclic graphs compared that on with trees and the accompanying computational burden. We have developed a technique for phylogenetic inference in the presence of PA based on the principle of minimum description length, which assigns a cost  the description length  to each network topology given the observed sequence data. The description length combines the cost of poor data fit and model complexity in terms of information. This device allows us to search through network topologies to minimize the total description length. By comparing the best models obtained with and without PA, one can determine whether or not recombination has played an active role in the evolution of the genes under investigation, identify those genes that appear to be mosaic, and infer the phylogenetic network that best represents the history of the alignment. We show that the method performs well on simulated data and demonstrate its application on HIV env gene sequence data from 8 human subjects. The software implementation of the method is available upon request. © The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved."



Tal Dagan,
Yael ArtzyRandrup and
William Martin. Modular networks and cumulative impact of lateral transfer in prokaryote genome evolution. In PNAS, Vol. 105:1003910044, 2008. Keywords: from sequences, from species tree, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0800679105.
Toggle abstract
"Lateral gene transfer is an important mechanism of natural variation among prokaryotes, but the significance of its quantitative contribution to genome evolution is debated. Here, we report networks that capture both vertical and lateral components of evolutionary history among 539,723 genes distributed across 181 sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Partitioning of these networks by an eigenspectrum analysis identifies community structure in prokaryotic genesharing networks, the modules of which do not correspond to a strictly hierarchical prokaryotic classification. Our results indicate that, on average, at least 81 ± 15% of the genes in each genome studied were involved in lateral gene transfer at some point in their history, even though they can be vertically inherited after acquisition, uncovering a substantial cumulative effect of lateral gene transfer on longer evolutionary time scales. © 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA."






Guohua Jin,
Luay Nakhleh,
Sagi Snir and
Tamir Tuller. A New Lineartime Heuristic Algorithm for Computing the Parsimony Score of Phylogenetic Networks: Theoretical Bounds and Empirical Performance. In ISBRA07, Vol. 4463:6172 of LNCS, springer, 2007. Keywords: approximation, heuristic, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Nepal. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/isbra07.pdf.








Derek Ruths. Applications of phylogenetic incongruence to detecting and reconstructing interspecific recombination and horizontal gene transfer. Master's thesis, Rice University, U.S.A., 2005. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://hdl.handle.net/1911/17912.






Jotun Hein. A heuristic method to reconstruct the history of sequences subject to recombination. In JME, Vol. 36(4):396405, 1993. Keywords: explicit network, from sequences, heuristic, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program RecPars, recombination, recombination detection, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00182187.



