
Changiz Eslahchi,
Reza Hassanzadeh,
Ehsan Mottaghi,
Mahnaz Habibi,
Hamid Pezeshk and
Mehdi Sadeghi. Constructing circular phylogenetic networks from weighted quartets using simulated annealing. In MBIO, Vol. 235(2):123127, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from quartets, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SAQNet, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, simulated annealing, software, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2011.11.003.
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"In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm based on the simulated annealing, SAQNet, as a method for constructing phylogenetic networks from weighted quartets. Similar to QNet algorithm, SAQNet constructs a collection of circular weighted splits of the taxa set. This collection is represented by a split network. In order to show that SAQNet performs better than QNet, we apply these algorithm to both the simulated and actual data sets containing salmonella, Bees, Primates and Rubber data sets. Then we draw phylogenetic networks corresponding to outputs of these algorithms using SplitsTree4 and compare the results. We find that SAQNet produces a better circular ordering and phylogenetic networks than QNet in most cases. SAQNet has been implemented in Matlab and is available for download at http://bioinf.cs.ipm.ac.ir/softwares/saq.net. © 2011 Elsevier Inc."



Hyun Jung Park and
Luay Nakhleh. MURPAR: A fast heuristic for inferring parsimonious phylogenetic networks from multiple gene trees. In ISBRA12, Vol. 7292:213224 of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, software. Note: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hyun_Jung_Park2/publication/262318595_MURPAR_A_Fast_Heuristic_for_Inferring_Parsimonious_Phylogenetic_Networks_from_Multiple_Gene_Trees/links/54b7e7b50cf269d8cbf58cc4.pdf.
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"Phylogenetic networks provide a graphical representation of evolutionary histories that involve nontreelike evolutionary events, such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). One approach for inferring phylogenetic networks is based on reconciling gene trees, assuming all incongruence among the gene trees is due to HGT. Several mathematical results and algorithms, both exact and heuristic, have been introduced to construct and analyze phylogenetic networks. Here, we address the computational problem of inferring phylogenetic networks with minimum reticulations from a collection of gene trees. As this problem is known to be NPhard even for a pair of gene trees, the problem at hand is very hard. In this paper, we present an efficient heuristic, MURPAR, for inferring a phylogenetic network from a collection of gene trees by using pairwise reconciliations of trees in the collection. Given the development of efficient and accurate methods for pairwise gene tree reconciliations, MURPAR inherits this efficiency and accuracy. Further, the method includes a formulation for combining pairwise reconciliations that is naturally amenable to an efficient integer linear programming (ILP) solution. We show that MURPAR produces more accurate results than other methods and is at least as fast, when run on synthetic and biological data. We believe that our method is especially important for rapidly obtaining estimates of genomescale evolutionary histories that can be further refined by more detailed and computeintensive methods. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."



Reza Hassanzadeh,
Changiz Eslahchi and
WingKin Sung. Constructing phylogenetic supernetworks based on simulated annealing. In MPE, Vol. 63(3):738744, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SNSA, reconstruction, simulated annealing, software, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.02.009.
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Different partial phylogenetic trees can be derived from different sources of evidence and different methods. One important problem is to summarize these partial phylogenetic trees using a supernetwork. We propose a novel simulated annealing based method called SNSA which uses an optimization function to produce a simple network that still retains a great deal of phylogenetic information. We report the performance of this new method on real and simulated datasets. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.



Lavanya Kannan and
Ward C Wheeler. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic Networks. In ALMOB, Vol. 7:9, 2012. Keywords: dynamic programming, explicit network, from sequences, heuristic, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748718879.
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"Background: Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a characterbased approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past.Results: In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain wellknown algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores.Conclusion: The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are common to all the branching patterns introduced by the reticulate vertices. Thus the score contains an inbuilt cost for the number of reticulate vertices in the network, and would provide a criterion that is comparable among all networks. Although the problem of finding the parsimony score on the network is believed to be computationally hard to solve, heuristics such as the ones described here would be beneficial in our efforts to find a most parsimonious network. © 2012 Kannan and Wheeler; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Hyun Jung Park and
Luay Nakhleh. Inference of reticulate evolutionary histories by maximum likelihood:
The performance of information criteria. In RECOMBCG'12, Vol. 13(suppl 19):S12 of BMCB, 2012. Keywords: AIC, BIC, explicit network, heuristic, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, statistical model. Note: http://www.biomedcentral.com/14712105/13/S19/S12.





ThiHau Nguyen,
JeanPhilippe Doyon,
Stéphanie Pointet,
AnneMuriel Chifolleau Arigon,
Vincent Ranwez and
Vincent Berry. Accounting for Gene Tree Uncertainties Improves Gene Trees and Reconciliation Inference. In WABI12, Vol. 7534:123134 of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: duplication, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Mowgli, reconstruction. Note: http://hal.archivesouvertes.fr/hal00718347/en/.
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"We propose a reconciliation heuristic accounting for gene duplications, losses and horizontal transfers that specifically takes into account the uncertainties in the gene tree. Rearrangements are tried for gene tree edges that are weakly supported, and are accepted whenever they improve the reconciliation cost. We prove useful properties on the dynamic programming matrix used to compute reconciliations, which allows to speedup the tree space exploration when rearrangements are generated by Nearest Neighbor Interchanges (NNI) edit operations. Experimental results on simulated and real data confirm that running times are greatly reduced when considering the abovementioned optimization in comparison to the naïve rearrangement procedure. Results also show that gene trees modified by such NNI rearrangements are closer to the correct (simulated) trees and lead to more correct event predictions on average. The program is available at http://www.atgcmontpellier.fr/ Mowgli/. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."



Joseph K. Pickrell and
Jonathan K. Pritchard. Inference of Population Splits and Mixtures from GenomeWide Allele Frequency Data. In PLoS Genetics, Vol. 8(11):e1002967, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, heuristic, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, population genetics, Program TreeMix. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002967.
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"Many aspects of the historical relationships between populations in a species are reflected in genetic data. Inferring these relationships from genetic data, however, remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a statistical model for inferring the patterns of population splits and mixtures in multiple populations. In our model, the sampled populations in a species are related to their common ancestor through a graph of ancestral populations. Using genomewide allele frequency data and a Gaussian approximation to genetic drift, we infer the structure of this graph. We applied this method to a set of 55 human populations and a set of 82 dog breeds and wild canids. In both species, we show that a simple bifurcating tree does not fully describe the data; in contrast, we infer many migration events. While some of the migration events that we find have been detected previously, many have not. For example, in the human data, we infer that Cambodians trace approximately 16% of their ancestry to a population ancestral to other extant East Asian populations. In the dog data, we infer that both the boxer and basenji trace a considerable fraction of their ancestry (9% and 25%, respectively) to wolves subsequent to domestication and that East Asian toy breeds (the Shih Tzu and the Pekingese) result from admixture between modern toy breeds and "ancient" Asian breeds. Software implementing the model described here, called TreeMix, is available at http://treemix.googlecode.com. © 2012 Pickrell, Pritchard."




