





Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk,
Nela Lekic,
Chris Whidden and
Norbert Zeh. Hybridization Number on Three Rooted Binary Trees is EPT. In SIDMA, Vol. 30(3):16071631, 2016. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.2136.



Steven Kelk,
Leo van Iersel,
Celine Scornavacca and
Mathias Weller. Phylogenetic incongruence through the lens of Monadic Second Order logic. In JGAA, Vol. 20(2):189215, 2016. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, MSOL, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://jgaa.info/accepted/2016/KelkIerselScornavaccaWeller2016.20.2.pdf.








Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk,
Nela Lekic and
Leen Stougie. Approximation algorithms for nonbinary agreement forests. In SIDMA, Vol. 28(1):4966, 2014. Keywords: agreement forest, approximation, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.3211.
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"Given two rooted phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa X, the Maximum Agreement Forest (maf) problem asks to find a forest that is, in a certain sense, common to both trees and has a minimum number of components. The Maximum Acyclic Agreement Forest (maaf) problem has the additional restriction that the components of the forest cannot have conflicting ancestral relations in the input trees. There has been considerable interest in the special cases of these problems in which the input trees are required to be binary. However, in practice, phylogenetic trees are rarely binary, due to uncertainty about the precise order of speciation events. Here, we show that the general, nonbinary version of maf has a polynomialtime 4approximation and a fixedparameter tractable (exact) algorithm that runs in O(4opoly(n)) time, where n = X and k is the number of components of the agreement forest minus one. Moreover, we show that a capproximation algorithm for nonbinary maf and a dapproximation algorithm for the classical problem Directed Feedback Vertex Set (dfvs) can be combined to yield a d(c+3)approximation for nonbinary maaf. The algorithms for maf have been implemented and made publicly available. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics."



Leo van Iersel and
Steven Kelk. Kernelizations for the hybridization number problem on multiple nonbinary trees. In WG14, Vol. 8747:299311 of LNCS, springer, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, kernelization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Treeduce, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1311.4045.





Zhijiang Li. FixedParameter Algorithm for Hybridization Number of Two Multifurcating Trees. Master's thesis, Dalhousie University, Canada, 2014. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://hdl.handle.net/10222/53976.








Leo van Iersel and
Simone Linz. A quadratic kernel for computing the hybridization number of multiple trees. In IPL, Vol. 113:318323, 2013. Keywords: explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, kernelization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Clustistic, Program MaafB, Program PIRN, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.4067, poster.
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"It has recently been shown that the NPhard problem of calculating the minimum number of hybridization events that is needed to explain a set of rooted binary phylogenetic trees by means of a hybridization network is fixedparameter tractable if an instance of the problem consists of precisely two such trees. In this paper, we show that this problem remains fixedparameter tractable for an arbitrarily large set of rooted binary phylogenetic trees. In particular, we present a quadratic kernel. © 2013 Elsevier B.V."



Chris Whidden,
Robert G. Beiko and
Norbert Zeh. FixedParameter Algorithms for Maximum Agreement Forests. In SICOMP, Vol. 42(4):14311466, 2013. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridInterleave, reconstruction, SPR distance. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1108.2664, slides.
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"We present new and improved fixedparameter algorithms for computing maximum agreement forests of pairs of rooted binary phylogenetic trees. The size of such a forest for two trees corresponds to their subtree pruneandregraft distance and, if the agreement forest is acyclic, to their hybridization number. These distance measures are essential tools for understanding reticulate evolution. Our algorithm for computing maximum acyclic agreement forests is the first depthbounded search algorithm for this problem. Our algorithms substantially outperform the best previous algorithms for these problems. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics."



Chris Whidden. Efficient Computation and Application of Maximum Agreement Forests. PhD thesis, Dalhousie University, Canada, 2013. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: http://hdl.handle.net/10222/35349.






ZhiZhong Chen and
Lusheng Wang. Algorithms for Reticulate Networks of Multiple Phylogenetic Trees. In TCBB, Vol. 9(2):372384, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program CMPT, Program MaafB, reconstruction, software. Note: http://rnc.r.dendai.ac.jp/~chen/papers/rMaaf.pdf.
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"A reticulate network N of multiple phylogenetic trees may have nodes with two or more parents (called reticulation nodes). There are two ways to define the reticulation number of N. One way is to define it as the number of reticulation nodes in N in this case, a reticulate network with the smallest reticulation number is called an optimal typeI reticulate network of the trees. The better way is to define it as the total number of parents of reticulation nodes in N minus the number of reticulation nodes in N ; in this case, a reticulate network with the smallest reticulation number is called an optimal typeII reticulate network of the trees. In this paper, we first present a fast fixedparameter algorithm for constructing one or all optimal typeI reticulate networks of multiple phylogenetic trees. We then use the algorithm together with other ideas to obtain an algorithm for estimating a lower bound on the reticulation number of an optimal typeII reticulate network of the input trees. To our knowledge, these are the first fixedparameter algorithms for the problems. We have implemented the algorithms in ANSI C, obtaining programs CMPT and MaafB. Our experimental data show that CMPT can construct optimal typeI reticulate networks rapidly and MaafB can compute better lower bounds for optimal typeII reticulate networks within shorter time than the previously best program PIRN designed by Wu. © 2006 IEEE."



Benjamin Albrecht,
Celine Scornavacca,
Alberto Cenci and
Daniel H. Huson. Fast computation of minimum hybridization networks. In BIO, Vol. 28(2):191197, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Dendroscope, Program Hybroscale, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr618.
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"Motivation: Hybridization events in evolution may lead to incongruent gene trees. One approach to determining possible interspecific hybridization events is to compute a hybridization network that attempts to reconcile incongruent gene trees using a minimum number of hybridization events. Results: We describe how to compute a representative set of minimum hybridization networks for two given bifurcating input trees, using a parallel algorithm and provide a userfriendly implementation. A simulation study suggests that our program performs significantly better than existing software on biologically relevant data. Finally, we demonstrate the application of such methods in the context of the evolution of the Aegilops/Triticum genera. Availability and implementation: The algorithm is implemented in the program Dendroscope 3, which is freely available from www.dendroscope.org and runs on all three major operating systems. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved."



Steven Kelk,
Leo van Iersel,
Nela Lekic,
Simone Linz,
Celine Scornavacca and
Leen Stougie. Cycle killer... qu'estce que c'est? On the comparative approximability of hybridization number and directed feedback vertex set. In SIDMA, Vol. 26(4):16351656, 2012. Keywords: agreement forest, approximation, explicit network, from rooted trees, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program CycleKiller, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.5359, about the title.
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"We show that the problem of computing the hybridization number of two rooted binary phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa X has a constant factor polynomialtime approximation if and only if the problem of computing a minimumsize feedback vertex set in a directed graph (DFVS) has a constant factor polynomialtime approximation. The latter problem, which asks for a minimum number of vertices to be removed from a directed graph to transform it into a directed acyclic graph, is one of the problems in Karp's seminal 1972 list of 21 NPcomplete problems. Despite considerable attention from the combinatorial optimization community, it remains to this day unknown whether a constant factor polynomialtime approximation exists for DFVS. Our result thus places the (in)approximability of hybridization number in a much broader complexity context, and as a consequence we obtain that it inherits inapproximability results from the problem Vertex Cover. On the positive side, we use results from the DFVS literature to give an O(log r log log r) approximation for the hybridization number where r is the correct value. Copyright © by SIAM."






Josh Voorkamp né Collins,
Simone Linz and
Charles Semple. Quantifying hybridization in realistic time. In JCB, Vol. 18(10):13051318, 2011. Keywords: explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridInterleave, reconstruction, software. Note: http://wwwcsif.cs.ucdavis.edu/~linzs/CLS10_interleave.pdf, software available at http://www.math.canterbury.ac.nz/~c.semple/software.shtml.
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"Recently, numerous practical and theoretical studies in evolutionary biology aim at calculating the extent to which reticulationfor example, horizontal gene transfer, hybridization, or recombinationhas influenced the evolution for a set of presentday species. It has been shown that inferring the minimum number of hybridization events that is needed to simultaneously explain the evolutionary history for a set of trees is an NPhard and also fixedparameter tractable problem. In this article, we give a new fixedparameter algorithm for computing the minimum number of hybridization events for when two rooted binary phylogenetic trees are given. This newly developed algorithm is based on interleavinga technique using repeated kernelization steps that are applied throughout the exhaustive search part of a fixedparameter algorithm. To show that our algorithm runs efficiently to be applicable to a wide range of practical problem instances, we apply it to a grass data set and highlight the significant improvements in terms of running times in comparison to an algorithm that has previously been implemented. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc."



Leo van Iersel and
Steven Kelk. Constructing the Simplest Possible Phylogenetic Network from Triplets. In ALG, Vol. 60(2):207235, 2011. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Marlon, Program Simplistic. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s0045300993330.
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"A phylogenetic network is a directed acyclic graph that visualizes an evolutionary history containing socalled reticulations such as recombinations, hybridizations or lateral gene transfers. Here we consider the construction of a simplest possible phylogenetic network consistent with an input set T, where T contains at least one phylogenetic tree on three leaves (a triplet) for each combination of three taxa. To quantify the complexity of a network we consider both the total number of reticulations and the number of reticulations per biconnected component, called the level of the network. We give polynomialtime algorithms for constructing a level1 respectively a level2 network that contains a minimum number of reticulations and is consistent with T (if such a network exists). In addition, we show that if T is precisely equal to the set of triplets consistent with some network, then we can construct such a network with smallest possible level in time O(T k+1), if k is a fixed upper bound on the level of the network. © 2009 The Author(s)."



Leo van Iersel and
Steven Kelk. When two trees go to war. In JTB, Vol. 269(1):245255, 2011. Keywords: APX hard, explicit network, from clusters, from rooted trees, from sequences, from triplets, level k phylogenetic network, minimum number, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.5332.
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"Rooted phylogenetic networks are used to model nontreelike evolutionary histories. Such networks are often constructed by combining trees, clusters, triplets or characters into a single network that in some welldefined sense simultaneously represents them all. We review these four models and investigate how they are related. Motivated by the parsimony principle, one often aims to construct a network that contains as few reticulations (nontreelike evolutionary events) as possible. In general, the model chosen influences the minimum number of reticulation events required. However, when one obtains the input data from two binary (i.e. fully resolved) trees, we show that the minimum number of reticulations is independent of the model. The number of reticulations necessary to represent the trees, triplets, clusters (in the softwired sense) and characters (with unrestricted multiple crossover recombination) are all equal. Furthermore, we show that these results also hold when not the number of reticulations but the level of the constructed network is minimised. We use these unification results to settle several computational complexity questions that have been open in the field for some time. We also give explicit examples to show that already for data obtained from three binary trees the models begin to diverge. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd."



Lavanya Kannan,
Hua Li and
Arcady Mushegian. A PolynomialTime Algorithm Computing Lower and Upper Bounds of the Rooted Subtree Prune and Regraft Distance. In JCB, Vol. 18(5):743757, 2011. Keywords: bound, minimum number, polynomial, SPR distance. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2010.0045.
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"Rooted, leaflabeled trees are used in biology to represent hierarchical relationships of various entities, most notably the evolutionary history of molecules and organisms. Rooted Subtree Prune and Regraft (rSPR) operation is a tree rearrangement operation that is used to transform a tree into another tree that has the same set of leaf labels. The minimum number of rSPR operations that transform one tree into another is denoted by drSPR and gives a measure of dissimilarity between the trees, which can be used to compare trees obtained by different approaches, or, in the context of phylogenetic analysis, to detect horizontal gene transfer events by finding incongruences between trees of different evolving characters. The problem of computing the exact d rSPR measure is NPhard, and most algorithms resort to finding sequences of rSPR operations that are sufficient for transforming one tree into another, thereby giving upper bound heuristics for the distance. In this article, we present an O(n4) recursive algorithm DClust that gives both lower bound and upper bound heuristics for the distance between trees with n shared leaves and also gives a sequence of operations that transforms one tree into another. Our experiments on simulated pairs of trees containing up to 100 leaves showed that the two bounds are almost equal for small distances, thereby giving the nearlyprecise actual value, and that the upper bound tends to be close to the upper bounds given by other approaches for all pairs of trees. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011."








Yufeng Wu. Close Lower and Upper Bounds for the Minimum Reticulate Network of Multiple Phylogenetic Trees. In ISMB10, Vol. 26(12):i140i148 of BIO, 2010. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PIRN, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btq198.
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"Motivation: Reticulate network is a model for displaying and quantifying the effects of complex reticulate processes on the evolutionary history of species undergoing reticulate evolution. A central computational problem on reticulate networks is: given a set of phylogenetic trees (each for some region of the genomes), reconstruct the most parsimonious reticulate network (called the minimum reticulate network) that combines the topological information contained in the given trees. This problem is wellknown to be NPhard. Thus, existing approaches for this problem either work with only two input trees or make simplifying topological assumptions. Results: We present novel results on the minimum reticulate network problem. Unlike existing approaches, we address the fully general problem: there is no restriction on the number of trees that are input, and there is no restriction on the form of the allowed reticulate network. We present lower and upper bounds on the minimum number of reticulation events in the minimum reticulate network (and infer an approximately parsimonious reticulate network). A program called PIRN implements these methods, which also outputs a graphical representation of the inferred network. Empirical results on simulated and biological data show that our methods are practical for a wide range of data. More importantly, the lower and upper bounds match for many datasets (especially when the number of trees is small or reticulation level is low), and this allows us to solve the minimum reticulate network problem exactly for these datasets. Availability: A software tool, PIRN, is available for download from the web page: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/ywu. Contact: ywu@engr.uconn.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press."



Yufeng Wu and
Jiayin Wang. Fast Computation of the Exact Hybridization Number of Two Phylogenetic Trees. In ISBRA10, Vol. 6053:203214 of LNCS, springer, 2010. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, integer linear programming, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridNumber, Program SPRDist, SPR distance. Note: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~ywu/Papers/ISBRA10WuWang.pdf.
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"Hybridization is a reticulate evolutionary process. An established problem on hybridization is computing the minimum number of hybridization events, called the hybridization number, needed in the evolutionary history of two phylogenetic trees. This problem is known to be NPhard. In this paper, we present a new practical method to compute the exact hybridization number. Our approach is based on an integer linear programming formulation. Simulation results on biological and simulated datasets show that our method (as implemented in program SPRDist) is more efficient and robust than an existing method. © 2010 SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg."



Chris Whidden,
Robert G. Beiko and
Norbert Zeh. Fast FPT Algorithms for Computing Rooted Agreement Forests: Theory and Experiments. In Proceedings of the ninth International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA'10), Vol. 6049:141153 of LNCS, springer, 2010. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridInterleave, reconstruction, SPR distance. Note: https://www.cs.dal.ca/sites/default/files/technical_reports/CS201003.pdf.
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"We improve on earlier FPT algorithms for computing a rooted maximum agreement forest (MAF) or a maximum acyclic agreement forest (MAAF) of a pair of phylogenetic trees. Their sizes give the subtreepruneandregraft (SPR) distance and the hybridization number of the trees, respectively. We introduce new branching rules that reduce the running time of the algorithms from O(3 kn) and O(3 kn log n) to O(2.42 kn) and O(2.42 kn log n), respectively. In practice, the speed up may be much more than predicted by the worstcase analysis.We confirm this intuition experimentally by computing MAFs for simulated trees and trees inferred from protein sequence data. We show that our algorithm is orders of magnitude faster and can handle much larger trees and SPR distances than the best previous methods, treeSAT and sprdist. © SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010."






ThuHien To and
Michel Habib. Levelk Phylogenetic Networks Are Constructable from a Dense Triplet Set in Polynomial Time. In CPM09, (5577):275288, springer, 2009. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, level k phylogenetic network, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.1657.
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"For a given dense triplet set Τ there exist two natural questions [7]: Does there exist any phylogenetic network consistent with Τ? In case such networks exist, can we find an effective algorithm to construct one? For cases of networks of levels k = 0, 1 or 2, these questions were answered in [1,6,7,8,10] with effective polynomial algorithms. For higher levels k, partial answers were recently obtained in [11] with an O(/Τ/k+1)time algorithm for simple networks. In this paper, we give a complete answer to the general case, solving a problem proposed in [7]. The main idea of our proof is to use a special property of SNsets in a levelk network. As a consequence, for any fixed k, we can also find a levelk network with the minimum number of reticulations, if one exists, in polynomial time. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg."





Josh Voorkamp né Collins. Rekernelisation Algorithms in Hybrid Phylogenies. Master's thesis, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 2009. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, from unrooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridInterleave, reconstruction, software. Note: http://hdl.handle.net/10092/2852.



Chris Whidden and
Norbert Zeh. A Unifying View on Approximation and FPT of Agreement Forests. In WABI09, Vol. 5724:390402 of LNCS, Springer, 2009. Keywords: agreement forest, approximation, explicit network, FPT, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: https://www.cs.dal.ca/sites/default/files/technical_reports/CS200902.pdf.
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"We provide a unifying view on the structure of maximum (acyclic) agreement forests of rooted and unrooted phylogenies. This enables us to obtain linear or O(n log n)time 3approximation and improved fixedparameter algorithms for the subtree prune and regraft distance between two rooted phylogenies, the tree bisection and reconnection distance between two unrooted phylogenies, and the hybridization number of two rooted phylogenies. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg."






Leo van Iersel and
Steven Kelk. Constructing the Simplest Possible Phylogenetic Network from Triplets. In ISAAC08, Vol. 5369:472483 of LNCS, springer, 2008. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Marlon, Program Simplistic. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1859.








Mihaela Baroni,
Stefan Grünewald,
Vincent Moulton and
Charles Semple. Bounding the number of hybridization events for a consistent evolutionary history. In JOMB, Vol. 51(2):171182, 2005. Keywords: agreement forest, bound, explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, SPR distance. Note: http://www.math.canterbury.ac.nz/~c.semple/papers/BGMS05.pdf.
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"Evolutionary processes such as hybridisation, lateral gene transfer, and recombination are all key factors in shaping the structure of genes and genomes. However, since such processes are not always best represented by trees, there is now considerable interest in using more general networks instead. For example, in recent studies it has been shown that networks can be used to provide lower bounds on the number of recombination events and also for the number of lateral gene transfers that took place in the evolutionary history of a set of molecular sequences. In this paper we describe the theoretical performance of some related bounds that result when merging pairs of trees into networks. © SpringerVerlag 2005."



Rune Lyngsø,
Yun S. Song and
Jotun Hein. Minimum Recombination Histories by Branch and Bound. In WABI05, Vol. 3692:239250 of LNCS, springer, 2005. Keywords: ARG, branch and bound, from sequences, minimum number, Program Beagle, recombination, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.cs.ucdavis.edu/~yssong/Pub/WABI05239.pdf.





Yun S. Song,
Yufeng Wu and
Dan Gusfield. Efficient computation of close lower and upper bounds on the minimum number of recombinations in biological sequence evolution. In ISMB05, Vol. 21:i413i422 of BIO, 2005. Keywords: minimum number, Program HapBound, Program SHRUB, recombination. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bti1033.
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"Motivation: We are interested in studying the evolution of DNA single nucleotide polymorphism sequences which have undergone (meiotic) recombination. For a given set of sequences, computing the minimum number of recombinations needed to explain the sequences (with one mutation per site) is a standard question of interest, but it has been shown to be NPhard, and previous algorithms that compute it exactly work either only on very small datasets or on problems with special structure. Results: In this paper, we present efficient, practical methods for computing both upper and lower bounds on the minimum number of needed recombinations, and for constructing evolutionary histories that explain the input sequences. We study in detail the efficiency and accuracy of these algorithms on both simulated and real data sets. The algorithms produce very close upper and lower bounds, which match exactly in a surprisingly wide range of data. Thus, with the use of new, very effective lower bounding methods and an efficient algorithm for computing upper bounds, this approach allows the efficient, exact computation of the minimum number of needed recombinations, with high frequency in a large range of data. When upper and lower bounds match, evolutionary histories found by our algorithm correspond to the most parsimonious histories. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved."






Vineet Bafna and
Vikas Bansal. The Number of Recombination Events in a Sample History: Conflict Graph and Lower Bounds. In TCBB, Vol. 1(2):7890, 2004. Keywords: ARG, bound, minimum number, phylogeny, recombination. Note: http://wwwcse.ucsd.edu/users/vbafna/pub/tcbb04.pdf.
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"We consider the following problem: Given a set of binary sequences, determine lower bounds on the minimum number of recombinations required to explain the history of the sample, under the infinitesites model of mutation. The problem has implications for finding recombination hotspots and for the Ancestral Recombination Graph reconstruction problem. Hudson and Kaplan gave a lower bound based on the fourgamete test. In practice, their bound R m often greatly underestimates the minimum number of recombinations. The problem was recently revisited by Myers and Griffiths, who introduced two new lower bounds R h and R s which are provably better, and also yield good bounds in practice. However, the worstcase complexities of their procedures for computing R h and R s are exponential and superexponential, respectively. In this paper, we show that the number of nontrivial connected components, Rc, in the conflict graph for a given set of sequences, computable in time O(nm 2), is also a lower bound on the minimum number of recombination events. We show that in many cases, R c is a better bound than R h. The conflict graph was used by Gusfield et al. to obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the galled tree problem, which is a special case of the Ancestral Recombination Graph (ARG) reconstruction problem. Our results also offer some insight into the structural properties of this graph and are of interest for the general Ancestral Recombination Graph reconstruction problem."



Mihaela Baroni,
Charles Semple and
Mike Steel. A framework for representing reticulate evolution. In ACOM, Vol. 8:398401, 2004. Keywords: explicit network, from clusters, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, regular network, SPR distance. Note: http://www.math.canterbury.ac.nz/~c.semple/papers/BSS04.pdf.
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"Acyclic directed graphs (ADGs) are increasingly being viewed as more appropriate for representing certain evolutionary relationships, particularly in biology, than rooted trees. In this paper, we develop a framework for the analysis of these graphs which we call hybrid phylogenies. We are particularly interested in the problem whereby one is given a set of phylogenetic trees and wishes to determine a hybrid phylogeny that 'embeds' each of these trees and which requires the smallest number of hybridisation events. We show that this quantity can be greatly reduced if additional species are involved, and investigate other combinatorial aspects of this and related questions."



Yun S. Song and
Jotun Hein. On the Minimum Number of Recombination Events in the Evolutionary History of DNA Sequences. In JOMB, Vol. 48(2):160186, 2004. Keywords: minimum number, recombination. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s0028500302275.
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"In representing the evolutionary history of a set of binary DNA sequences by a connected graph, a set theoretical approach is introduced for studying recombination events. We show that set theoretical constraints have direct implications on the number of recombination events. We define a new lower bound on the number of recombination events and demonstrate the usefulness of our new approach through several explicit examples. © SpringerVerlag 2003."



Mihaela Baroni. Hybrid phylogenies : a graphbased approach to represent reticulate evolution. PhD thesis, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 2004. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, galled tree, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, regular network. Note: http://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/bitstream/10092/4803/1/baroni_thesis.pdf.





